The strategies of youth justice, as identified by Muncie (2009), will now be discussed throughout the emergence of the youth justice system and how the arrangements and certain relationships between them, present contradictory views over how youth offenders should be dealt with. First we refer to the two polemic philosophies, the welfare and the justice perspectives and the conflicts that these divergent natures render any attempt at fusion unsuccessful, and then we examine the philosophies of risk-management and authoritarianism. The historical development of youth justice legislation and political positions will accompany this. Welfare vs Justice Since the early nineteenth century most young offender legislation has protected young people from the full weight of criminal law and the recognition of this was embodied in the 1908 Children Act creating a distinct system of youth justice, differentiating in terms of responsibility and culpability between adults and young people. Before this, child criminals were punished... ... middle of paper ... ...llenges for social work with children in trouble.
With many sources that attempt to explain why youth join gangs, studies based on empirical research are optimal to reveal the critical factors. This paper will focus on the key sources that are based on empirical methodologies as the base for comprehending why youth join gangs. The research has a pattern that reveals youth join gangs because of pre-existing delinquency, homophily, and low socio-economic status. One of the critical factors that explain why youth join gangs is pre-existing delinquency, meaning a youth is delinquent before becoming a gang member. Although this is based on a societal belief that being more delinquent will result in becoming a gang member, studies based on empirical research reveal that youth's pre-existing delinquency results in a higher chance of becoming a gang member (Gordon, Lahey, Kawai, Loeber, and Farrington 2004, Lachman, Roman, and Cahill 2013, Maclure and Sotelo 2004, Yoder, Whitbeck, and Hoyt 2003, and Johnstone 1983).
Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 31, 235-263 Taylor, K. W., & Kliewer, W. (2006). Violence exposure and early adolescent alcohol use: An exploratory study of family risk and protective factors. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15,
Welch, M, Price, EA, and Yankey, N 2002, ‘Moral panic over youth violence: Wilding and the manufacture of menace in the media’, Youth Society, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 3-29 West, DM 2005, ‘American politics in the age of celebrity’, The Hedgehog Review, vol. 7, no.
(2004) the youth that enrol in gangs already have a deviant behaviour beforehand. This confirms the general understanding that having a deviant lifestyle to begin with will likely lead to enrolling in a gang; whereas youth who are disciplined will achieve success via the normative means. Thus, the probability of engaging in gang membership and coming from a deviant background share a vivid connect... ... middle of paper ... ...re, R., & Sotelo, M. (2004). Youth Gangs In Nicaragua: Gang Membership As Structured Individualization. Journal of Youth Studies, 7(4), 417-432.
Introduction There are several ongoing of issues that are effecting adolescents in today’s society ranging from low self-esteem, teen pregnancy, and obesity. Also, amongst these issues are the growing concerns and effects of bullying. Its epidemic is also starting to become closely related to the growing numbers of suicide rates amongst adolescents within the United States and across the globe. However, there are several adults that may take bullying lightly thinking that it is just a part of kids being kids. Whereas to an adolescent, bullying can cause long-term effects as they transition into adulthood.
This makes many teenagers in United Kingdom to indulge in criminal and deviant behaviours, which is closely associated with drug use and gang crimes. We can therefore argue that some emotional, psychological and biological characteristics make youths to indulge in gang crimes. It is hard to differentiate drug abuse and violence in United Kingdom or a cross the world at large. Adolescence drug use scares adults. The spectres of addiction, psychosis, alienation and rebellion provoke dramatic responses: legislations enact and create control agencies; social scientists conduct studies; and all these efforts are documented, evaluated and modified.
Bullying is a huge problem in today’s society. One of the main problems with bullying is the effects that it can have on the victims of bullying for the rest of their lives. When you consider that 47% of children in Canada have been bullied, it raises the concern that bullying can lead to a chain of events in a person’s life that leads them to live a deviant life. According to www.dictionary.com (2014), the definition for a bully is “a blustering, quarrelsome, overbearing person who habitually badgers and intimidates smaller or weaker people”. It is important ... ... middle of paper ... ...rks Cited Cullen, F. T., Unnever, J. D., Hartman, J. L., Turner, M. G., & Agnew, R. (2008).
Retrieved from http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1550&context=mhlp_facpub Hawkins, D. J., Herrenkohl, T. I., Ferrington,D.P., Brewer, D., Catalano, R.F., Harachi, T.W., Cothern,L. (2000). Predictors of Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin: Predictors of Youth Violenece. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, (NCJ-179065), 1-14.