Bipolar disorder is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to handle everyday life. (Atkins) These symptoms mentioned can be very severe. There are two classes of this disorder, bipolar type I and bipolar type II. Bipolar type I, known as classic bipolar disorder, is when there is at least one manic episode and at least one of sustained depression. (Atkins) Type II bipolar is described by someone have recurrent episodes of major depression and at least one hypomanic episode.
This becomes a problem when the feelings are so strong that the person looses contact with reality. In an episode of mania, a person may experience the following symptoms:5 „h Abnormally elevated mood (euphoria) „h Over-inflated self-esteem „h Decreased need for sleep „h Increased talkativeness „h Racing thoughts „h Distractibility „h Involvement in risky activities Severe Depression. The Bipolar Disorder Glossary defines depression as "an extreme mood of sadness with physical symptoms such as loss of appetite and sleep." Everyone experiences depression in their lifetime, it helps people to recognize problem situations. In contrast to normal depression, severe depression can impair a persons ability to function in everyday situations.
There are three different forms of bipolar disorder. “ Bipolar disorder type I is the classic form of the illness, involving recurrent cycles of extreme manic and depressive episodes” (Martin, 2006, p. 305). Mixed states, where both manic and depressive symptoms occur at the same time, also occur frequently with bipolar I patients. “Bipolar II disorder is characterized by major depressive episodes alternating with episodes of hypomania, a milder form of mania” (Martin, 2006, p. 305). Bipolar depression is many times difficult to distinguish from a major de... ... middle of paper ... ...8-232.
One that includes in the spectrum is its beginning stage of Bipolar One. Bipolar One is characterized by a past of a least one manic episode, and usually depressive episodes. The next stage is Bipolar Two is characterized by the hypomanic episodes taking turns with depressive episodes. Cyclothymia is characterized by highs which satisfy some, but not completley all criteria for hypomania and lows which satisfy some but not all criteria for depression. The wide variety of symptoms include a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable mood, lasting at least one week or any duration if hospitalization if it becomes necessary.
People affected with bipolar disorder suffer from both mania and depression, experiencing manic symptoms, or extreme highs, and then suddenly experience depressive symptoms, or extreme lows. In between these mood swing episodes are periods of normal mood. The depressed mood often lasts longer than the manic mood, however, the duration of episodes vary from person to person. If left untreated, episodes can last from several days to several months. Some symptoms of mania are: increased energy, restlessness, rapid speech, racing thoughts, excessive euphoria, uncharacteristically bad judgment, denial, overspending money, and risky behavior.
Not nearly as prevalent as other forms of depressive disorders, manic depressive illness involves cycles of depression and elation or mania. Sometimes the mood switches are dramatic and rapid, but most often they are gradual. When in the depressed cycle, you can have any or all of the symptoms of a depressive disorder. When in the manic cycle, any or all symptoms listed under mania may be experienced. Mania often affects thinking, judgment, and social behavior in ways that cause serious problems and embarrassment.
In patients with Bipolar I the disease usually starts with a manic episode. The manic episodes that the individual has outweighs the depressive episodes. In Bipolar II patients suffer from sever depression. They might undergo slight manic episodes, but depressive episodes do outweigh them. In mixed states depressive and manic symptoms occur simultaneously in rapid successions.
Before bipolar disorder can b e fully understood, the two main mood stages must first be identified. During an endless bout with bipolar disorder, a person experiences many stages of mania and depressiion. Different symptoms of mania included an increase in energy or activity, rapid speech, excessive excitement, extreme irritability and distractibility, a decrease in the amount of sleep needed, uncommonly poor judgment, or increased sex drive, denial, overspending, and high risk behavior. All of these symptoms may not be prevalent in a bipolar disorder patient, however, the more severe the case, the more likely all symptoms may occur. A depressed episode includes the opposite characteristics, including a persistent sad or empty feeling, decreased energy, loss of interest in activities normally enjoyed, difficulty concentrating, change in appetite or body weight, and thoughts of suicide.
Which is where individuals with manic episodes experience a period of depression. The depression episodes are characterized by a persistent sadness, almost inability to move, hopelessness, and disturbances in appetite, sleep, in concentration, and driving. The manic episodes are characterized by elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, poor judgment and insight, and often reckless or irresponsible behavior (Hollandsworth, Jr. 1990 ). As the National Depressive and Manic Depressive Association (MDMDA) have demonstrated, bipolar disorder can create substantial developmental delays, marital and family disruptions, occupational setbacks, and financial disasters. In addition, bipolar states and psychotic states are misdiagnosed as schizophrenia, but a closer look at speech patterns can help distinguish between the two (Lish, 1994).
In some cases, bipolar disorder causes symptoms of depression and mania at the same time (Bipolar Disorder, 2013). Although bipolar disorder is a disruptive, long-term condition, you can keep your moods in check by following a treatment plan. In most cases, bipolar disorder can be controlled with medications and psychological counseling (psychotherapy) (Bipolar Disorder, 2013) Bipolar disorder is characterized by extreme changes in mood, from mania to depression. Between these mood episodes, a person with bipolar disorder may experience normal moods (What is Bipolar Disorder? 2013).