Restraining the virus is done in two ways, either by macrophages and phagocytes, or by killer T cells. Macrophages and phagocytes both contain the virus by engulfing and breaking them down with the help of enzymes and lysosomes (Delves). Killer T cells “recognize antigens from the pathogen” and kills the cell by inducing apoptosis, thus “preventing the spread of the infection to neighboring cells” (Mayer, Nyland). Killer T cells also immobilize infected cells by injecting a substance called perforin, which enters the wall of the infected cell and makes a hole, causing the cell to leak fluids and electrolytes and ultimately lead to their death (Menche, et al). Antibodies also play a vital role in the neutralizing viruses.
The Immune System The Immune System is a group of cells, molecules, and organs that act together to defend against disease. The body depends on the immune system to seek and destroy bacteria or viruses that could cause harm. There are two types of immunity: innate and adaptive. Innate is the body's first line of a defense against the disease. The innate immunity helped by barriers such as skin, tears, mucus, saliva, and infection.
These various receptors function together to initiate response from the immune system. To avoid being phagocytised, the bacteria have developed strategies to dysfunction the phagosomes. In an experiment, David G. Russell observed that the infected phagosomes resembled m... ... middle of paper ... ...necrosis. Granuloma is an object that is generated and gathered around the site of infection. It is composed of a group of macrophages with fused plasma membranes.
This system involves the body's ability to distinguish cells that are part of the body from those that have found their way in and are harmful. Most of these unwanted substances are viruses, bacteria, and other type of disease causing organisms. When a cell in our body has become infected or has become cancerous it’s surface changes. This is how the immune system can tell good cells from bad ones (the markings on the surface.) Once a bad cell has been recognized our bodies sends cells to destroy the damaged cell and prevent the spread of whatever caused the damage in the first place.
The innate includes barriers like the skin and antibacterial enzymes within tears. The adaptive is based on specialized white blood cells which are lymphocytes and they respond to invasions by micro-organisms. Antibodies are chemicals produced by B cells, they circulate in the blood that attacks disease and causes organisms, T cells attack organisms head on, and these cells can memorize earlier infections and therefore can act fast to avoid further attacks. The defence of the immune system helps to provide protection against infectious disease as well as some malfunctions of the internal body. If the infectious organism splits the skin or maybe one that is not killed off by chemicals, for example the enzymes found in tears or the saliva, the immune and inflammatory response come into action.
Activated lymphocytes will then carried out their effectors functions; including cytokine production, cytotoxicity, and antibody synthesis. Adaptive immune responses can sub-divide into cell-mediated immunity (helper T cells secrete cytokine or/and soluble factors to mediate the immune responses; cytotoxic T cells release lymphotoxin which lyses target cell) and humoral immunity (B cells will differentiate into plasma and secrete antibodies). (Delves and Roitt 2000a; ... ... middle of paper ... ...n important step in selecting effectors functions according to their profile of cytokine production (Figure 3). Th1 cells secrete IFN-γ, and IL-2 which will promote the macrophage activation, CTL formation, and antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity. Th2 cells, on the other hand, produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and monitor the IgG1 and IgE isotype switching and mucosal immunity, stimulation of mast cells and eosinophils growth, and IgA synthesis.
Erythrocytes are vital to our bodies homeostasis because they provide ... ... middle of paper ... ...the T-cell can either produce antibodies, or can kill the cell entirely. There are a few types of T-cells namely, helper t-cells- which release cytokins to stimulate other lymphocytes to help isolate the antigen. The second is cytotoxic T-cells which are a CD8 co receptor and have the ability to kill antigens directly. These two cells plus Leukocytes are what in turn run our immune cells. autoimmune disease and aplastic anemia Now that we understand how B-cells and T-cells fight antigens to help protect us.
Pathogens have chemical signals, antigens, which the immune system recognizes. B cells have antibodies that recognize these antigens and kill the pathogens when they are still outside of a cell. T cells have receptors that are antigen specific. They are responsible for attacking pathogens that have already attacked cells. There are two types of T cells.
A basic understanding of these concepts is necessary for the purpose of understanding the specific effects of different immunopharmacological agents. HUMORAL IMMUNITY Humoral or antibody-mediated immunity is associated with B-lymphocyte cells. Antigens are foreign molecules that initiate an immune response, they have inherent immunogenicity (Tortora & Grabowski, 1996). Upon contact with an antigen, B-cells divide to produce a clone of plasma cells capable of the production of antibodies. Antibodies are immunoglobulins, modified blood proteins with a specific action against antigens.
The AIDS virus has an external envelope, made of lipid and protein. This envelope is derived from the cell membrane of the host cell in which the virus replicated. The virus contains reverse transcriptase enzyme. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; meaning that one is able to catch it, it is a weakness in the body’s system that fights diseases, and is a group of health problems that makes up a disease. A virus called HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) causes AIDS.