Fiscal and monetary policies focus on quickly returning the economy to sustainable, healthy growth. Any type of fiscal relief package will boost consumer and business spending and can augment the nation's long-term growth potential. Expansionary monetary policy can stimulate growth and provide insurance against the possibility of deflation. This paper will present information on four topics: (1) tools used by the Federal Reserve to control the money supply, (2) how these tools influence the money supply and in turn affect macroeconomic factors? (3) how money is created? (4) recommended monetary policy combinations that best achieve a balance between economic growth, low inflation, and a reasonable rate of unemployment.
Policy makers did not stand idly by as the financial markets and the economy unraveled. There are questions, though, about the appropriateness and magnitude of their responses. Monetary policy, determined and conducted then, as now, by the Federal Reserve, became restrictive early in 1928, as Federal Reserve officials grew increasingly concerned about the rapid pace of credit expansion, some of which was fueling stock market speculation. This policy stance essentially was maintained until the stock market Crash.
Hummel, William. "The Federal Reserve System." Home Page. N.p., 30 Aug. 2006. Web. 20 Dec. 2009. .
"Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco." SF Fed. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. < http://www.frbsf.org/education/publications/doctor-econ/2003/january/monetary-policy-1970s-1980s>
In this essay I will discuss the role of the Federal Reserve in the United States economy. In doing this I will look first at open market operations as a tool to influence money supply. Then, I will look at discount rate and federal funds target rate and how the Federal Reserve uses it to influence money supply. Lastly, I will look at required reserve ratio and deposit expansion (money) multiplier as a tool the Federal Reserve uses to influence the money supply. Throughout discussion of these concepts I will give my opinion on how the Federal Reserve might best employ each of these tools given to our certain economic situation which would be to lower money supply to avoid inflation.
Tobin, James. "Monetary Policy ." Library of Economics and Liberty. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Dec 2013. .
The change in the Fed’s policy actions from 1993 to 1994 is not as drastic as it may first appear. It is merely a continuing evolution of the manner in which the Fed executes the strategy and tactics of its monetary policy. The effectiveness of this modification of its policy is borne out by the lack of any visible sign of inflation at the end of 1994. Additional time will provide the necessary information to determine if this policy stance is still effective in the future and adjustments will undoubtedly have to be made.
Global recessions of 1975, 1982, 1991 and 2009 have questioned economists of the specific era to provide the causes of these recessions along with steps to avoid them. IMF considers global recession as “A decline in annual per capita real World GDP (purchasing power parity weighted), backed up by a decline or worsening for one or more of the seven other global macroeconomic indicators: Industrial production, trade, capital flows, oil consumption, unemployment rate, per capita investment, and per capita consumption” (World Economic and Financial Surveys). A recession therefore affects all the countries dependent on an economy undergoing recession. Since decades economists are trying to draft possible measures that an economy can take to avoid recession or to get out of a recession. Constant debates, on which approach an economy should take to get out of recession, have never reached to any conclusion. Mainly there are three schools of thought in economics that emerged during and after recession i.e. classical, monetarist and Keynesian. No school of thought has yet provided a perfect solution as the approaches by these three schools have many pros and cons. However, many economists believe that Keynesian is a more suitable approach for getting an economy out of recession. Although Keynesian approach have policy lags and can cause high inflation, however, Keynesian tools’ expansionary fiscal policy, expansionary monetary policy and revaluation of currency are very effective in increasing GDP ultimately pulling an economy out of recession.
In the study of macroeconomics there are several sub factors that affect the economy either favorably or adversely. One dynamic of macroeconomics is monetary policy. Monetary policy consists of deliberate changes in the money supply to influence interest rates and thus the level of spending in the economy. “The goal of a monetary policy is to achieve and maintain price level stability, full employment and economic growth.” (McConnell & Brue, 2004).
Metzler, Allan H. A History of the Federal Reserve, Vol I and II. University Press Books, 2002
The 1990 has, reflects on broader recovery than any of the upturns lived. The early turnarounds did not include the economy’s finance and retail mostly exports. The banks have gotten rid of the bad loans that lingered around their profits. The recoveries did not bring the unemployment rate down because they were too short term and not broad enough. Japan’s unemployment rate has be...
The monetary policy of a country is considered by most economists to be the first and foremost line of defense as far as economic slowdowns or crises are concerned. The Federal Reserve makes this policy and this is beneficial because the economists responsible for the formulation of the monetary policy are in a better position to gauge the appropriateness of the timings as well as the magnitude of the stimulus (Gürkaynak, Sack and Swanson, 2005). Given the deep impact that the monetary policy has on the overall progress and development of the economy, it is imperative to study and evaluate the monetary policy of the country.
Impact of monetary policy on the economy a regional Fed perspective on inflation, unemployment, and QE3 : Hearing before the Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology of the Committee on Financial Services, U.S. House of Representatives, One. (2011). Washington: U.S. G.P.O.
In April, the normally optimistic Central Bank of Japan issued a report downgrading its forecast for the Japanese economy, the third straight month it has done so. This was also the first report since September 1995 that the admitted that the economy is in a state of deflation. Deflation is the lowering of prices, and leads to lower corporate profits across the board. Deflation has a crippling effect on an economy, and demands an immediate and strong response. The report attributed this most recent downturn to lower industria...