Mondimore's Analysis Of Homosexuality In Other Cultures

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observations of same-sex intimacy in other cultures because “homosexuality” has become a universal term to describe the idea of preferring the same sex. Second, the analysis of homosexuality in China is in regards to male homosexuality because there are numerous sources of information pertaining to intimacy between males in ancient Chinese literature.

Homosexuality

Homosexuality is defined as the sexual desire or attraction towards individuals of the same sex, referring to both males and females. This, however, was not always how homosexuality was defined and perceived. The term “homosexuality” was first coined in 1869 by a german psychologist, Karl-Maria Kertbeny when he published his pamphlet using the term to replace common shaming
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Mondimore’s analysis and conclusions are essential to understanding that same-sex intimacy, now known as homosexuality, was perceived differently by different societies. In most societies where intimate relations between members of the same sex occurred frequently, same-sex relations was considered and accepted as a norm. In such societies, they saw no need to differentiate between homosexuality and heterosexuality as Western civilization did in the late nineteenth century and therefore, terms to describe same-sex relations did not develop until then. Additionally, his observations, gathered from different sources about different societies, demonstrate that same-sex relations were not limited to Western societies alone. Intimate relations between members of the same sex occurred throughout the world in different time periods and different places, including the Chinese society.
Changes in perception of same sex relations, however, turned what was once accepted and tolerated into something individuals would liken to abnormality or sin. Increased intolerance of same-sex relations initially
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Richard von Krafft-Ebing in his book Psychopathia Sexualis (1886) also saw homosexuality as natural but offered the theory that it is a degenerative sickness. Sigmund Freud suggested that every individual is born a bisexual and they later choose which the expression of sexualty that suits them best. Although Freud strongly believed that there was no cure for homosexuality since it is not a disease, many psychiatrists, such as Edmund Bergler, would use Freud’s psychoanalytic theory to justify their own theories of homosexuality. Bergler was adamant that homosexuality was an illness that can be cured through something known as the reparative therapy.
The purpose of the reparative theory is to change a male’s sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. The theory behind this therapy is that male homosexuality is a result of a damaged masculinity from conflict in his father-son relationship. Therefore, the supposed purpose of this therapy is the heal the masculinity and then he will be able to be a heterosexual.Although this kind of therapy was proven to be potentially harmful to patients because it could result in depression and suicide, it is still unethically practiced

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