Charles Darwin was a man who shaped the way in which we think about evolution in modern times. He brought forth and described the theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest. To fully understand modern evolutionary thoughts it is necessary for one to completely understand the early theories of Charles Darwin. In this paper I will provide the reader with a complete background on Charles Darwin, describe his voyage on the HMS Beagle, and discuss his theory of natural selection. Charles Robert Darwin, the founder of evolution, was born on February 12, 1809 in rural England.
Evolution: Historical Controversy In order to fully understand Darwin’s vision, it is important to understand the historical context and compare it to the previous ideas on Earth and life on Earth. “On the Origin of Species” (Darwin, 1859) revolutionized the ideas of the time: not only did it question the scientific ideas but it also questioned the basis of occidental culture. Darwin’s vision opposed the vision of a world made of immutable species created in a week by a Creator who modelled the whole universe. Philosophers such as Plato (428-348 BC) and Aristotle (384-322 BC), who had a major influence on occidental culture, would have opposed to the idea of evolution. Plato cou... ... middle of paper ... ...ptation and the emergence of new species were linked.
Charles Darwin, a British naturalist, revolutionized biology with his theory of evolution through the process of natural selection. Herbert Spencer was the major philosopher of biological and social evolution. Spencer's work significantly influenced 19th century developments in biology, psychology, sociology and anthropology. While Darwin was influential in the fields of natural history and geology, his theory of evolution created great controversy. He changed the way people thought about the role of humans in the natural world.
In 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species: by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life, a work which was set change the ideas on how people think about the natural world, how it works, ways in which it develops itself. Although making the briefest of commentaries about the human, parallels in thinking can be drawn on the behaviour of the natural world to the way of humans. It is important to understand nature first to be able to analyse the behaviour as humans is similar to that of the natural world, to understand the barriers that may effect change or to an extreme evolution. It is essential to understand nature first as humans who share many traits with the natural world, e.g. growth, reproduction, intelligence, and sustainability to name a few.
1999 Wilson, E.O. The Diversity of Life. New Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.1999 Vorzimmer, Peter J. Charles Darwin: The years of Controversy; The Origin of Species and its Critics 1859-1882. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2004. Print. Prindle, David. "Controversy: The Pace of Evolution."
Gould, S.J., "The Panda's Thumb", W.W. Norton and Company Inc. New York, 1980 3. Gould, S.J., "The Flamingo's Smile", W.W. Norton and Company Inc. New York, 1985 4. Mayr, E., "One Long Argument:Charles Darwin and the Genesis of Modern Evolutionary Thought", Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts, 1991 5. Ospovat, D., "The Development of Darwin's Theory", Cambridge University Press, New York, 1981 6. "Index of the Origin of Species" Internet, http//www.cs.brandeis.edu/~ ~rllc/texttract1.html
With these observations, Lamarck concluded that these characteristics were hereditary. Proposed during two decades, the 1930s and 1940s, the synthetic theory involved a group of scientists. The group of scientists included two American biologists, Russian Theodosius and German Ernst Mayr, and the British geneticist and statistician Ronald A. Fisher. Together, they proposed the synthetic theory which combined Darwin's theory of natural selection with the ideals of genetics. In 1808, French naturalist Chevalier de Lamarck contemplated a theory of evolution, although, his theory of evolution did not gain any recognition until 1858.
There are many events and scientists who have been important influences on the study of heredity over time. In 1809, a French biologist, Jean Baptiste de Lamarck, proposed the first complete theory of evolution. He claimed, “new species originate by natural processes and that man has an ape ancestry” (Bailey 13). His ideas become an important influence on evolutionary thinking for the next one hundred and twenty five years. In 1859, Charles Darwin published his theory of evolution by natural selection called The Origin of the Species.
Scientific Creationism Introduction In 1859 Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species where he proposed the theory of evolution for the first time. Since this radical theory was first proposed, there has been a debate over its validity and the theological implications that come with it. In order to understand the reasons why Darwin's theory has caused so much debate over the past century it is first necessary to examine evolution and Darwin's theories about the origin of species. Evolution is, strictly speaking, simply change over time. A biological definition is, more specifically, "any change in the frequency of alleles within a gene pool from one generation to the next (1)."