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Mitosis And Meiosis Essay

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In eukaryotic organisms, there are two types of cellular divisions that take place within the body. The first type being mitosis and the second being meiosis. Mitosis is what happens when the cell’s nucleus divides into two identical daughter cells. Meiosis is the process that creates four daughter cells that each has half the number of the original chromosomes as the original parent cell. While the products for these processes are different there are some similar aspects, that each has in common with one another. In this essay, I will outline the similarities and the differences between meiosis and mitosis while underlining the importance of the two in conjunction with evolution.

Meiosis and Mitosis have many similarities that are evident
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In meiosis, there are two parts to the process, which are meiosis I and meiosis II. The main similarities arise between meiosis II and mitosis, because both of these are equational, meaning that they begin and end with the same number of chromosomes, while meiosis I is considered reductional because the number of chromosomes you begin with is reduced by half by the end of the process. Chromosomes are single, long molecules of DNA, however, they are not synonymous because a chromosome is not DNA. A chromosome contains histones, which are the protein that DNA wraps around and uses for protection and support. DNA and histones combine together to form what is known as chromatin. Once the chromatin is condensed then it will be a chromosome. Mitosis and meiosis both have to replicate the cell’s DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) in order for both processes to commence. DNA is the genetic material inside of the nucleus of the cell, this encodes for RNA: which…show more content…
These two processes both contribute to evolution. It is believed that the earlier eukaryotic organisms were haploid, which means they would only be in possession of a single chromosome set. For this to take place then that would mean that meiosis would be the key process used for creating these organisms. Mitosis is a universally found in all eukaryotic, therefore meiosis is derived from mitosis. Since eukaryotes come from prokaryotes and prokaryotes used binary fission, it is most likely that mitosis comes from binary fission. Mitosis is an important process to in creating normal organisms. Meiosis is important in evolution because it responsible for the variety that can be found in organisms, even those that are of the same species. For the most part, when mutations arise in the DNA of cells that undergo mitosis, these errors will not be passed on to the next generation. However, the mutations in a germ line cell will be transmitted to the next generation. During prophase I of meiosis, there is crossing over that occurs between the homologous chromosomes. This results in new chromosomes that combine both parental genes. This will allow for each new gamete to have new information to pass on to the next generation, this is how each generation in a species can have a range of variety. Also, independent assortment, which takes place in metaphase I, allows for the random
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