Many reasons are due to how the system of reporting is established within the military, retaliation and further re-victimization within the chain of command. Modifications to the current system have begun within the Department of Defense and future changes are probable. Overall sexual assault has been beheld as a coercive or forced act against another person whether in the form of sexual penetration or unwanted contact against the victim. However, the military has a term for sexual assault which is military sexual trauma. Military sexual trauma has some implications for the victim that do not necessarily apply to a civilian being sexually assaulted.
When an incident of sexual assault takes place, the victim needs to report the assault up to their chain of command, who then make the decision of whether or not to prosecute. This can take a longer time than it normally would for civilians, and generally produces a low rate of convictions. Military sexual assault can be defined as unwilling sexual contact between one or more uniformed personnel, frequently associated with physical threats and/or use of force. Unwillingness refers to the victim not consenting to the sexual act being performed, whether the act is performed while the victim is conscious or unconscious,... ... middle of paper ... ... & Kirby, D. (Director). (2012).
There are two types of sexual harassment, which are Quid Pro Quo and Hostile Environment harassment. Quid Pro Quo sexual harassment occurs when an employee gets on the promotion track or even gets to keep his/her job is based on if the employee submitted to or rejected sexul advances or other types of inappropriate sexual comments. Hostile Environment sexual harassment occurs when a co-worker or supervisor in the workplace makes sexual advances or comments to an employer that, while not affecting promotions or the future of the employees job makes the working environment of the employee offensive and hostile. Theres the two sexual harassment types that happen throughout the workplace. There are many laws that protect and prevent sexual harassment in the workplace.
The actual act of rape by definition of law is the penetration by the perpetrator against one’s will. Rape is a physical and emotional crime which leaves un-curable scars. When a male sexually abuses a female he may not fully understand or care about the emotional toll placed on her life forever. Her outlook on life may change and she may feel that she is all alone. There are a lot of different disorders that rape victims come in contact with but one sticks out more than the others.
Navy Hearing in Rape Case Raises Alarm. The New York Times. Retrieved March 26, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/21/us/intrusive-grilling-in-rape-case-raises-alarm-on-military-hearings.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0> Steinhauer, J. (2013, October 10). 2 Face Court-Martial in Naval Academy Assault Case.
A sense of anonymity online gives someone an excuse to commit sexual harassment, or be more aggressive towards others. Sexual Harassment involves an unwelcome sexual advance that can cause a person to not be able to work well in their work environment as well as be uncomfortable in a personal environment as well. Social media has a sort of anonymity, which doubles, as a sort of shield to people who harass other’s online, and the law can only do so much for the victim. Sexual harassment, not only in person, but online can have devastating emotional, mental and physical repercussions to the victim who is being sexually harassed. Taking away the power the offender has is one of the ways to give the victim their life back, as well as making it
Some studies showed a positive correlation between the violent threats towards victims and their decision not to pursue charges or any other mediation (Artz, 2011). In other words, threatened violence by the offender directed towards the victim was a reason behind the victim failing to cooperate. Artz (2011) further notes studies performed in the 1990’s showed women may not follow through with the process due to the criminal justice process itself. The process is very time consuming and with multiple court dates, taking off work and finding adequate childcare can create issues (Artz, 2011, p. 8). These studies also found the problems that can occur with the service of protection orders, misunderstanding of the criminal justice system itself, and once again, being afraid of the offender, will serve as a determining factor in a victims’ willingness to cooperate with further court proceedings.
Exposure and Outcome Rape can ruin lives. The sexually violent act is associated with a long list of public health concerns, including disease, unwanted pregnancy, physical trauma, mental and emotional suffering, and death. While rape can be simply defined as sex without consent, the impact rape has on society is complex. Victims are often stigmatized. They feel ashamed, weak and at fault.