Microorganisms and Antibodies

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There are 5 different classes of antibody: IgG, IgM, IgD, IgE and IgA. What makes them different from one another is the amino acid sequences found in the Fc region of the heavy chain. Since effector function relies on the amino acid sequences in the Fc region, hence some of the functions they provide are class specific. In total, there are 4 main effector functions of antibodies: neutralization of microorganisms and toxins, antibody-mediated opsonisation and phagocytosis of microorganisms, antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity and activation of complement pathway. Neutralization of microorganisms is where the antibodies bind to the microorganisms, preventing it from interacting with the cell surface receptor. By binding to the microorganisms, it also prevent the spread of infection from cell to cell. Neutralization of toxins is completed by the antibodies blocking the toxins of microorganism by binding to the cell surface receptors. This then inactivate the harmful effects of the toxins. The same goes to virus neutralization where antibodies bind to the virus and block it from attac...

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