I am writing this research paper on the differences and similarities between bacteria, viruses, and prions. In this paper I will define each of the subjects that I am comparing and tell and show you how they are different and how they are similar. I will also tell you about their structure, how they reproduce, and a disease that is caused by each of them. I will first start with defining all three subjects. Bacteria are known as large groups of unicellular microorganism that have cell walls but lack organelles, a nucleus, and bacteria are also prokaryotic.
While the definition of living organisms must be adapted, the majority of evidence leads to the classification of viruses as living organisms. Viruses are composed of a nucleic acid core, a protein capsid, and occasionally a membraneous envelope. The nucleic acid core is composed of either DNA or in the case of retroviruses, RNA, but never both. In retroviruses, the RNA gets transcribed to DNA bye the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The protein capsid is a protein layer that wraps around the virus.
The envelope has two lipid layers with protein molecules interspersed. They may also contain material from the membrane of the host cell as well as its own. Some may also develop spikes on the envelope to help attach to cell surfaces. The final part of a virus, nucleic acid, encodes the genetic information for the synthesis of proteins. Most viruses maintain genetic information with RNA rather than DNA.
Viruses, Bacteria, and Prions are all small organisms that can do incredible damage, but also help in other ways too. Each one has a different structural make up, and infects or helps humans in many different ways. In this paper ill talk about the structures of each, the reproductive methods, the ways that each infects humans or other organisms, and what other structures and organisms can be infected by each. First off we will talk about the structural make up of each. Viruses each have a very specific structure, that doesn’t vary all to much from virus to virus.
It also has a protein coat that holds the nucleic acid. Most viruses are held together by an envelope made of fat and protein molecules. Bacteria consist of DNA, RNA, proteins, polysaccharides, and phospholipids or a combination of something involving those. The macromolecules are made of amino acids, sugars, and nucleotides. Prions on the other hand do not contain any DNA or RNA.
The name of a virus, DNA or RNA, is based on the type of nucleic acid that composed its genome. The smaller viruses have only a few genes while others have several hundred. The capsid is a protein shell that enclosed the viral genome and comes in many shapes and sizes. They are composed of many protein subunits called capsomeres, although the actual numbers of different kinds of protein are few. Many viruses have a membranous envelope that covering their capsid.
Bacteria are unicellular organisms called prokaryotes. Viruses are pieces of biomolecules that cannot reproduce independently. Both groups may be pathogens, or may be beneficial- sometimes, the same species or variety may be both, depending on circumstances (Starr, C., and Taggart, R., 2004.) Throughout history, pathogens and more helpful species have played vital roles in the development of humanity as a species and of the human social arrangement. Prokaryotes are divided into eubacteria and archaebacteria.
Viruses, bacteria, and prions are all major topics in biology. These particles can have many traits and characteristics that are the same or they can differ greatly. Many diseases can be caused by these three things. This paper is going to inform you on these three topics, the way they compare and contrast, and examples for explanation purposes. What are these biological things?
U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2 Aug. 2011. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. . • "Salmonella enterocolitis: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia."
Prokaryotes also have less complex transcriptional regulatory mechanisms than eukaryotes. The cell wall is a rigid layer surrounding a cell that gives it support and protection. It protects the inside of the cell from internal movement while supporting the cell. Animal cells do not have cell walls, instead, they have a semi-permeable plasma membrane. Most prokaryotes have cell walls made of peptidoglycan made from polysaccharide chains cross-linked by peptides.