Back when Organic chemistry was the chemistry of living matter, Professor Wohler succeeded in synthesizing in the laboratory an organic compound previously observed in living tissue as Urea. Professor Wohler made this organic compound from non-living chemical substance, Ammonium Cyanate. He evaporated a solution of Ammonium Cyanate to produce Urea. Thus rendering the “Vital Force” theory to be with flaws. Other famous experiments proved the vitalism theory was wrong.
He later noticed that around the mould, germs, had stopped growing. He was very curious to find out why this was happening and was determined to find out more about this unusual occurrence. The mould was a member of the penicillin notatum family. It produced a bacteria killing juice which Fleming named Penicillin. He carried out further experiments with the mould.
Leeuwenhoek first worked in a fabric shop in Delft, Holland in the mid-1600s. Leeuwenhoek used his microscope to observe almost anything he could think of to have a better understanding of what he was seeing. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek contributed to microbiology because he developed the first simple microscope, was the first to observe microorganisms, and was a pioneer in anatomy. Leeuwenhoek’s greatest skill was grinding lenses for the simple design of his microscope. Leeuwenhoek used the money from the government positions to which he was appointed to pursue his hobby of lens grinding.
The introduction of genes, white blood cells, blood groups, insulin, rubber gloves, aspirin, and vitamins and the discoveries of Pasteur, Charcot, Halsted, Zirm, Lister, and Koch were the starting point of an international fight against disease. A remarkable breakthrough in medicine occurred in the late 1800s through the work of Louis Pasteur. Pasteur's experiments showed that bacteria reproduce like other living things and travel from place to place. Using the results of his findings, he developed pasteurization, which is the process of heating liquids to kill bacteria and prevent fermentation. He also produced an anthrax vaccine as well as a way to weaken the rabies virus.
This is the phase of biotechnology when people started providing the scientific background to many of the common observations. A Dutch tradesman Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632 –1723), while working in his draper’s shop observed minute organisms in the fabric using a simple microscope. His microscopic observations also include the microbes from the plaque between his own teeth and described his observations in a letter to the royal society, “I then most always saw, with great wonder, that in the said matter there were many very little living animalcules, very prettily a-moving. The biggest sort. .
Pathogenic bacteria can cause very serious infections. Before antibiotics were discovered, there were many deaths due to bacterial infections . Penicillin was the first antibiotic discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming. He observed a set of culture dishes that were used to grow staphylococcus. He saw that a mould was growing around the staphylococcus this mould produced a bacteria-free ring around itself.
Alchemists set the stage for modern chemistry by performing experiments and recording the results. Robert Boyle wrote The Sceptical Chymist in 1661, and in this book it he talks about the difference between chemistry and alchemy. Although was not the original discover of chemistry, he is best known for Boyle’s law in 1662. Antoine Lavoisier helped chemistry become a full-fledged science when he a law of conservation of mass. The law of conservation of mass relates to chemistry because it requires a careful measurements and quantitative observations.