Microbiology Essay

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Biology is the study of living organisms divided into specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution. One of the most important fields within biology is microbiology, a field that details the function and behavior of microorganisms that remain invisible to the human eye. Using devices like electron microscopes scientist are able to identify, characterize, and record the morphologies and behaviors of various microorganisms. One of the most essential components of all organisms including microorganisms is their genetic information. With the development of microbiology over the past century, DNA has been identified as the macromolecule that carries genetic information. Some key experimentations…show more content…
The concept of microbiology emerged in the late 1600s when Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first observed bacteria and other microorganisms using a single lens microscope. The microscope manufactured and used by Leeuwenhoek served as a catalyst for the field of microbiology, exposing a whole world of microorganisms. With the utilization of tools like microscopes and methods like ink staining, scientist have been able to step into a seemingly invisible world and note the contribution of microorganisms to human life. These tools and methods have been essential to the discovery that DNA was the macromolecule charged with the transformational ability of genetic information in bacterial cells The first experiment to establish the…show more content…
The main goal of this experiment was to determine if DNA or proteins within bacteriophages were the hereditary material that entered a bacterial cell to direct the assembly of new viruses. This experiment followed in its predecessor’s footsteps and used tools developed in the field of microbiology for the observation of cellular behavior. The researchers split their main objective into two experiments. In one experiment researchers took a bacteriophage encoded with the element P, which is prominent in DNA but not proteins, and in the other experiment researchers used the bacteriophages(phages) holding the element S, which exists in proteins but not DNA. The mixtures were then allowed to infect bacteria. Researchers then placed the phage and bacteria mixture in a blender in order to remove the viruses from the bacterial cells. Researchers then placed the mixture in a centrifuge, forcing the bacterial cells to the bottom of the tube, separating the bacteria from the rest of the material. Hershel and Chase found that the supernatant fluid, liquid that housed the lighter part of the viruses that did not infect bacteria, held a majority of the P element initially introduced in the experiment. The S element that indicated the singular presence of DNA, was found to be transferred into the bacteria. The results from this experiment indicated that DNA
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