Metabolic Risk and Benefit of Cardiovascular Disease

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Introduction Today, there is a wide range of dietary approaches purported to decrease the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). We now understand that what appears to be inconsistent evidence to support a relationship between diet and CVD risk reduction is likely attributable to previously unrecognized confounders such as biological variability, co-linearity of diet variables, interaction among diet and biological factors, and differences in the strength of the relationship between clinical outcomes and biomarkers. It is difficult, if not impossible, to directly assess the efficacy of dietary interventions on CVD risk because of the difficulty in modifying dietary intakes of large groups of individuals over long periods of time and the cost associated with such efforts. Hence, most dietary interventions with the intent of reducing CVD risk are evaluated on the basis of biomarkers. Traditionally, plasma lipid, lipoprotein and apoprotein concentrations were used as biomarkers to evaluate diet interventions intended to reduce CVD risk. More recently, a wider range of biomarkers is used. Due to the amount of data available, we will look nutritional benefits and negative effect on the human body such as: dietary fatty acids, cholesterol, carbohydrates, protein, supplement, fibers, and the impact of certain drinks and vegetables. Literature Review When we think about the human body and physiology behind all the mechanism, the body has to generate energy so the body can work at optimal body. The body feed off what we put into it, but sometime adding too much may create a negative effect in health. We will be looking at several component of dietary supplement and investigation research study and evident on th... ... middle of paper ... ...n Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults: Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 285:2486–2497, 2001 [36]Crouse JR, Harpold GH, Kahl FR, Toole JF, McKinney WM: Evaluation of a scoring system for extra-cranial carotid atherosclerosis extent with B-mode ultrasound. Stroke 17:270–275, 1986 [37]Kiechl S, Willeit J for the Bruneck Study Group: The natural course of atherosclerosis. Part I. Incidence and progression. Arterioscl Thromb Vasc Biol 19:1484–1490, 1999 [38]Isomaa B, Almgren P, Tuomi T, Forse´n B, Lahti K, Nisse´n M, Taskinen MR, Groop L: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 24:683–689, 2001
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