CHAPTER 2 CAUSES OF MENTAL HEALTH AND THE BURDEN ON THE POOR Lack of awareness has made mental illnesses appear mystical. Some people suffer from mental disorders since birth(mental retardation) while some develop the disorders overtime(mental illness).Mental illnesses result from complex interactions between the mind, body and environment. Factors like long-term and acute stress, biological factors such as genetics, chemistry and hormones, use of alcohol, drugs and other substances, cognitive patterns such as constant negative thoughts and low self-esteem, social factors such as isolation, financial problems, family breakdown or violence are the scientific causes of a mental illness. (http://www.mentalhealth-matters.com.au/resources/ID1367819089.pdf) But rural people in India in general and tribal populations in particular, have their own beliefs and practices regarding health. Some tribal groups still believe that a disease is always caused by hostile spirits or by the breach of some taboo. They therefore seek remedies through magico-religious practices. (Current health scenario in rural India, Ashok Vikhe patil, K.V.Somasundaram and R.C. Goyal) This is an inevitable consequence of the barriers in seeking timely and effective treatment for mental illness in rural India: unavailability of mental health services, low level of literacy, socio- cultural barriers, superstition stemming from traditional and religious beliefs, stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness. About 75% of health infrastructure, medical professionals and other health resources are localised in urban areas where 27% of the population live. The poor penetration and the basic nature of rural health is also attributed to lack of health litera... ... middle of paper ... ...urden increasing to 15% by Disability Adjusted Life Year( DALY) * (Mental health services in rural India : challenges and prospects by Anant Kumar) Mental illness constitutes nearly one sixth of all health-related disorders. With the population on a rise, altering values, life-style, unemployment and frequent instability in incomes, lack of social support and increasing insecurity, it is predicted that there would be substantial increase in the number of people suffering from mental illness in both urban and rural areas. In order to get rid of the vicious cycle of poverty feeding into mental illness, there is a need to think of mental health as a development priority instead of just a concern of public health and human rights. • * DALY – it is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the numbers of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
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The relationship between mental health and poverty can prove to be complicated at times because of an overwhelmingly large number of outside
Continuing budget cuts on mental health care create negative and detrimental impacts on society due to increased improper care for mentally ill, public violence, and overcrowding in jails and emergency rooms. Origins, of mental health as people know it today, began in 1908. The movement initiated was known as “mental hygiene”, which was defined as referring to all things preserving mental health, including maintaining harmonious relation with others, and to participate in constructive changes in one’s social and physical environment (Bertolote 1). As a result of the current spending cuts approaching mental health care, proper treatment has declined drastically. The expanse of improper care to mentally ill peoples has elevated harmful threats of heightened public violence to society.
Poverty in mental health prevents patients from seeking out medical attention due to lack of insurance. “insurance coverage disparities make mental health care less accessible than other forms of health care” (Safran, 2011). Due to lack of insurance patients are not receiving adequate care, such as being evaluated, receiving the appropriate treatments, and not going to doctor follow up appointments to ensure proper care. Without receiving proper treatment, it can cause the patient condition to get worse and would not have a chance of a successful outcome. Also, poverty can cause additional stress and anxiety making the mental illness progress. “The stresses of living with someone who has a mental health problem may be particularly pronounced for families who live in resource poor areas where treatment options, accurate information, and social support may be limited.” (Bischoff, 2017). Lack of attention is another health disparities, due to lack of attention, there is limited funding sources to help mental health patients. Since there is a lack of funding these individuals are not getting the appropriate help that is needed. As well since mental health lacks attention and funding, there are limited mental health institutions, so people who need to be institutionalized may be required to be relocated to another city/state. We must try our best to provide all resources for our patients and
It is widely recognized that mental illness affects a significant proportion of the population; however, it is complicated to determine exact numbers. This problem can be attributed to such issues as the changing definitions of mental illness as well as difficulties in classifying, diagnosing, and reporting mental disorders. Limitations to adequate mental health services including social stigma, cultural incompatibility between patients and providers, language barriers, lack of insurance and logistical barriers. In addition, significant differences in socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviors, and access to care have resulted in health disparities between rural and urban communities (Institute of Medicine, 2004). According to Sulzbacher et al., many families who live in rural areas do not have the financial, social or psychological resources, to travel to distant urban centers to obtain adequate care particularly for a chronic mental health problem. There is also evidence to suggest that mental illness in rural areas is as nearly as high as among people in metropolitan areas. However, the accessibility of mental health services and professionals in rural areas is extremely low compared to major cities and metropolitan areas. Such barriers can impede the diagnosing, treating and reporting of mental illnesses and have also been instrumental in developing and improving telepsychiatry and e-mental health models.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that 25% of people suffer from a mental illness and that 50% of people will develop one during their life ("Surveillance Report," 2011). Mental illness is also associated with “chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, asthma, and diabetes” (Pederson et al., 2013, p. 695). Rural communities have higher rates of chronic illnesses, mental health issues and fewer providers thus making this population vulnerable to health disparities. The purpose of this paper is to explore mental illness in the rural community, ways to improve accessibility to care, and improve outcomes through the role of a rural nurse educator.
People who are in different societal groups measure health in different ways. Mental health affects people in developing countries in different ways because they look at different aspects of and compare different things. People in developing countries who have money and who are able to access the medical care are looked at to be at a higher social status. Medical care in these areas cost money, a lot of people who do not have the money are not able to access the support they would need to improve their mental health. Due to mental health being a topic that is rarely talked about it is also something that a lot of people suffer from but no one talks about because they are not able to get
Those that are homeless or living in poverty have high rates of mental disorders, but have limited access to get assistance due to they are the ones that are being discriminated against because of their social status (Saxena, et al., 2007). In some countries, it is a person’s sex that determines if they meet the criteria for assistance, more woman than men normally meet the criteria for common mental disorders and assistance (Saxena, et al., 2007). The last example are those that live in rural areas due to they are not in close proximity to a major city to be able to receive the care they need (Saxena et al., 2007). Where I live these are all barriers for those with mental illness to get assistance and I do not feel like there is much being done to improve the situation. Next I will discuss the last worldwide barrier, which is inefficiencies when using the
According to the American Psychiatric Association (APA), it defines mental illness as Mental illnesses are health conditions involving changes in thinking, emotion or behavior (or a combination of these). Mental illnesses are associated with distress and/or problems functioning in social, work or family activities. (What Is Mental Illness? (n.d.). Retrieved June 26, 2016, from https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/what-is-mental-illness). Mental Disorders are a wide range of mental conditions that affect mood, thinking, and behavior. There are a lot of different psychological disorders here is a list of the major psychological disorders and their definitions:
Mental illness related to low socioeconomic status (SES) conditions lead to interference of educational pursuits and finding employment; thus trapping the family in a cycle of poverty. Obstacles in accessing quality mental health car...
According to the World Health Organization, the relationship between mental health and poverty is particularly important: the poor and the deprived have a higher prevalence of disorders, including substance abuse. Society does not take well to poverty especially to individuals living in poverty that have a mental illness. In some instances, mental illness can be a cause for individuals living in poverty. When individuals cannot afford health insurance how are they going to afford medication for the
India is a multicultural traditional society and the population is predominantly rural (Khandelwal, Jhinga, Ramesh, Gupta, & Srivastava, 2004). Compare to other similar countries, India is having a strong primary health care service system. Mental health service in India is a part of general health service. Community mental health in India is a three tier service sector consists of public, private and nonprofits (Padmavati,
Mental disorders are rapidly becoming more common with each new generation born in the world. Currently, nearly one in two people suffer from some form of depression, anxiety, or other mental health problem at some point in their lives (Editor). With so many people suffering from their mental illnesses, steps have been taken in order to get help needed for these people but progress has been slow. In the medical world, hospitals are treating those with physical problems with more care than those with mental problems. Prescription drugs can only do so much helping the mentally ill go through their daily lives and more should be done to help those who need more than medicine to cope with their illness. Mental health should be considered just as important as physical health because of how advanced physical healing is, how the public reacts to those with mental illness, and due to the consequences that could happen if the illness is not correctly helped.
either neurological or contextual, so treatment differs. It is essential to convince the importance of mental health well-being in communities as for them it’s a strange concept. For indigenous people, family and social relationship are important and not as of western style of relationship. The western model does not work with indigenous people for promoting mental health wellbeing as they give importance to the individual but indigenous people consider community and family as well. The mental health promotional program should be contextual as each community have unique customs and culture, and the way of living and maintain relationship differ, the methodology introduce to promote
It is deeply alarming that ignoring mental health is systematically ignored as an important part of health promotion. This is shocking because, in theory, mental health is recognized as an important component of health, the close link between physical and mental health is recognized, and it is generally known that physical and mental health share many of the same social, environmental and economic components. We know that facilities dedicated to those with mental health problems are more vulnerable to the resources of physical diseases in many parts of the world, and it is essential that mental health promotion should not be equally affected