During the Middle Ages, medicine was limited. This was critical because in 1348-1350 the Black Death killed millions, nearly one third of the population. Physicians had no idea what was causing diseases or how to stop them ("Medicine in the Middle"). The Catholic Church told its people the illness was punishment from God for their sins (Gates 9). Some of the only procedures doctors could perform was letting blood by using leeches, and mix ‘medicines’ using herbs, spices, and resins (Rooney 106-107).
Many theories were developed about how the plague was spread. Most people thought it was spread by bad smells in the air and no one attributed it to the rats. The Middle Ages was a time of serious regression and very little progress was made. This was mainly because of the influence of Christianity and the hysterical witch-hunts that led to people being too scared to oppose the rulings of the Church. Its influence was so powerful that until the time of Henry VIII the Church had more power then the King.
Possibly, many treaties were lost in the fire that destroyed the Great Library of Alexandria, but a librarian saved and compiled approximately 60 of the medical writings, publishing them as the Hippocratic Corpus. Identify which texts were actually written by Hippocrates is still an ongoing work for historians, but the influence of the physician of Cos is clearly observed in the text of the Corpus. Before Hippocrates, as observed in the last chapter of the book, medicine and religion were closely related. The population believed that diseases had a supernatural cause or were divine punishments, so treatments consisted in going to temples and praying to the gods for help. However, the Hippocratic medicine distanced itself from religion, and Hippocratic writings argues that all diseases have natural causes.
New York: Garland Science. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27155/ JHMI. (2001, Oct 10). Autoimmune Disease Research Center. Retrieved Nov 16, 2013, from Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions: http://autoimmune.pathology.jhmi.edu/whatisautoimmunity.html Mader, S. S., & Windelspecht, M. (2014).
In response, sociologists are calling for the integration, or as some would prefer a re-integration, of medical sociology. Late in the nineteenth century, medical sociology had begun to establish itself as a credible and important voice; however, with the coming of Abraham Flexner's report, "medical education became highly technological, with little room for teaching about medicine's ultimate social role" which must take into consideration the actual people involved (Roemer, 1986, p. 153). While medical sociology has continued to express itself in the more technological context, it has not been acknowledged as a qualified approach to solving the medical crisis--until lately. The need for the re-integration of medical sociology is based on the observations that current approaches, attitudes, and values are not completely applicable to our changing society. The sociology of medicine allows for the study of the origins, evolution and laws of the medical profession with resp... ... middle of paper ... ...35.