STEINFELS, P. & LEVINE, C. 1976. Biomedical Ethics and the Shadow of Nazism: A Conference on the Proper Use of the Nazi Analogy in Ethical Debate, April 8, 1976, The Center. TRIAL, N. 1946. From “Trials of war criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under control council law no. 10” Vol, 2.
In this essay I will be talking about what informed consent is, and why it is so important in medical research. I will explain the rights it provides to the patients, and why it has been required in health society. I will also talk about the Nuremberg Code's significance, and how it was first brought about. I will also include information about studies that violated the Nuremberg Code, and why the HeLa studies also violated the code. I will include information from the book The Immortal life of Henrietta Lacks and the primary source "Fifty years later: The Significance of the Nuremberg Code", along with eight other sources.
Genetic counselling is a complex process and does not seem to have a single definition. From a purely biological standpoint, genetic counselling is, “diagnosing and classifying a genetic disease; to identify unaffected carriers of a defective gene in order to counsel them about the risk of having affected children; to detect a serious genetic disease before the clinical onset of symptoms in order to improve the quality of life…” On the surface, the job of a genetic counsellor is practical, helpful, and seems to be serving a purpose to parents, or potential parents. Others choose to define it with a larger percentage of the social implications within the definition. For example, “… helping people try to understand and cope with the effects on their lives and the lives of their families.” It is important to not disregard the extensive social persuasion that a client may experience if they were to learn that their child, or potential child, may be genetically predisposed to disease. Though genetic counselors claim to be supportive of clients and uninvolved in the decisions that a client may make, there is little consideration of the social pressures involved with making certain decisions.
In the United States, the basis for ethical protection for human research subjects in clinical research trials are outlined by the Belmont Report developed in the late 1970’s. This document, published by the Nation Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, highlights three important basic principles that are to be considered when any clinical trial will involve human research subjects. They are; respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. (Chadwick & Gunn, 2004) Over 20 years after the proclamation of these specific ethical guidelines, we are introduced to the University of Pennsylvania’s Institute for Human Gene Therapy’s study on a delivery mechanism for gene therapy that resulted in the death of an 18 year old research subject Jesse Gelsinger. Gelsinger suffered from partial OTC (ornithine transcarbamylase) deficiency caused by a defective single gene (Obasogie, 2009).
Contraception is it right or wrong and are you to young to decide for yourself? Recently we have been hearing a lot about Contraception ad if it is right or wrong and who gets to decide. The name of the Scholarly article that I chose to write about is, (Simonds & Ellertson, 2004, p. 1285-1297) Emergency Contraception and Morality reflections of health care workers and clients. In the United States our government goes back and forth between trying to be conservative and trying to separate personal feelings from what people are trying to push them to do. Our government has been taking steps to over haul health care in the United States and my doing so they have been talking about Contraception and if it’s right or wrong and what guide lines you have to follow to be eligible to receive it.
Individual rights b) Society i. Implication on society II. Religious a) Religious concerns b) Different religion views III. Medical Benefits a) What are they b) What are the risks IV. Legislation a) Who regulates it b) What is regulated The Random House Webster’s College Dictionary defines bioethics as a field of study and counsel concerned with the implications of certain medical procedures, genetic engineering, and care of the terminally ill.
Laboratory specimens can not possibly equate to what a human can achieve deeming any laboratory experiment illogical. Instead of developing principals about their theories, they concluded that each individual is their own being. Humanistic psychologists believe in the inherent “good” nature of all people. &nbs... ... middle of paper ... ...ng the humanistic approach to reinforce their own decision making can teach a child to make the correct decisions and also give a more positive view of those choices no matter what they are. At any age the cognitive approach can be used to help children learn to recall information they have been taught or apply that “lesson” we are trying to get across.
The article does not introduce research findings or mention the role of research. Phelan and Lynn support two parenting skills, acknowledgement of the child’s good behaviour and the use of natural consequences technique. Suggested research to support these findings. My hypothesis for research could be: would praise and consequences (reinforcement) work to increase a child’s compliance? Research required to support these generic findings would entail the test or measure of the same families or families with similar features i.e.
The dispute which is being analyzed in this paper is one of mass debate today. The argument is on whether or not embryonic stem cells should be used to come up with forms of treatment for degenerative diseases such as: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and Diabetes. The author of this paper is Stephen Napier he is in association with the Bioethics center in Philadelphia, PA. The article was published in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy in 2009. In this article Mr. Napier reviews past arguments on the current debate and provides the reader with his stance against the use of Stem cells as a form of research and furthermore he argues the stance on vulnerability of a fetus and if it has moral values equal to an adult person.
An important ethic is confidentiality where records of research should be kept in such a way to ensure participant confidentiality. However if some information reveals the child’s welfare is at risk then parents should be informed. Finally there is dissemination in early years practice the child is often too young to understand research findings so a summary should be given to the child’s parents.