Health Savings Accounts Formerly known as Medical Savings Accounts, President Bush changed the name to Health Savings Accounts, or HSA. In 2003, congress approved a bill for Health Savings accounts and was signed into law in January 2004. This creation of HSAs is part of the largest expansion of the government intervening in medicine in 40 years (Americans for Free Choice in Medicine, 2013). Unlike the aforementioned health spending and reimbursement accounts, HSAs can be used for medical expenses for the employee as well as their spouse and dependents. Both the employer and/or employee can open a health saving account and the employer, employee or any third party can make contributions.
If your household income is below 133% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL), you qualify. Some states use a different income limit. There are several reasons there are differences from state to state. When the health care law was passed, it required states to provide Medicaid coverage for all adults 18 to 65 with incomes up to 133% of the FPL, regardless of their health, age, or family status (Healthcare.gov n.d.). The law also provides premium tax credits for people with incomes between 100% and 400% of the FPL to buy private insurance plans in the Health Insurance Marketplace (Healthcare.gov n.d.).
Medicare was designed as a universal healthcare program for individuals 65 years old and older. This program is funded by Medicare taxes and general federal funding withholding taxes. Medicare is a partnership between federal and state with the goal to provide medical insurance to the elderly that is poor and disabled. Generally all people who are 65 years or older and qualify for social security will automatically qualify for Medicare. There are four components to the Medicare program, part A, B, C and D. Part A of Medicare covers in patient hospital services; patients have a financial responsibility to cover a deductible that is equivalent to 1 day of hospitalization, thereafter cost is covered at 100 percent for a maximum of 60 days.
Medicare and Medicaid are one of important government programs. According to Medicaid.gov site, there are more than 4.6 million low-income seniors enrolled in Medicare and about 8.3 million people that are enrolled in both Medicare and Medicaid. Anyone that enrolled with Medicare and limited income and resources are eligible to get assistance paying for their premiums and out-of-pocket medical expenses from Medicaid. Not only does Medicaid cover additional services, but, services covered by both programs are first paid by Medicare with Medicaid in the difference up to the state’s payment limit (Medicaid.gov, 2015) . As many are aware, in most cases, when you turn 65, you qualify to apply for Medicare.
It cost about $432 billion or 3.2% of GDP, as of 2007(par2).Medicare is broken down into parts, Part A is hospital Insurance Part B is medical Insurance, and Part D is Medicare prescription drug coverage (medicare.gov). Like we previously stated Medicare is a health insurance for people who are 65 and older, people under 65 with certain disabilities, and people of any age with End- Stage Renal Disease. Medicaid is a joint federal-state program of medical assistance for low income persons (Benefit.gov). It is administered by the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS) and Illinois Department of Public Aid (IDPA). Medicaid serves about 40 million people as of 2007; it cost $330 billion, or 2.4% of GDP, in 2007.
Monthly premiums are based on the plan you choose, the number of medications you use, and the types of co-pays and deductibles you choose. Medicare Part D Plans are offered in group and individual plans throughout all 50 states. The standard benefit for 2014 has a $310 deductible and 25% coinsurance up to an initial coverage limit of $2,850 in total drug costs. Enrollees will be required to pay either 5% of total drug costs or $2.55/$6.35 for each generic or brand-name drug. Medicare Part D covers drugs available only by prescription, drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), drugs used and sold in the U.S., drugs used for a medically accepted indication, as defined under the Social Security Act, drugs not covered under Part A or Part B, drugs covered by the person’s Part D plan or coverage is obtained through the exceptions or appeals process.
A total of ninety-eight patients who presented in April 2009 through May 2011 with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the combined breast clinic in National Cancer Institute. In the TNM staging classification, LABC is represented by stage IIIA (T0-N2; T1/2 - N2; T3 - N1/2), stage IIIB (T4, N0-2) and stage IIIC disease (any T, N3). Various chemotherapy schedules were used according to standard practice at different times. For much of this period, the standard neoadjuvant treatment regimen was 5-fluorouracil, epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (FEC) with two schedules used: 500 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, 75 mg/m2 epirubicin and 500 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide or 600 mg/m2 5-fluorouracil, 60 mg/m2 epirubicin and 600 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide, both for 6 cycles on a 21-day cycle. Forty three patients were treated with the FEC schedule.
By 2009, there were fifty-eight countries with some form of Universal Healthcare. The question is: Can the U.S learn anything from the rest of the world about how to run a health care system? Universal Healthcare is implemented among three different types of systems: Single Payer, Two-Tier and Insurance Mandate. Through the single-payer plan, the government provides insurance for all residents (or citizens) and pays all health care expenses except for copays and secondary insurance. Providers can be public, private or a combination of both.
All of the patients were diagnosed with bulimia nervosa during their initial visit and met DSM-III criteria for bulimia. The ages of the sample ranged from 14 to 40 years with a mean age of 23.5. Also the onset of the disease ranged from 10 to 36 years of age with a mean of 19 years. The follow-up study began no less than five years after their initial visit with an average duration of 5.10 years. The patients were contacted through the mail, and of these fifty patients, 41 were traced, one had died, 5 were unable or refused to participate and 36agreed to participate.
This paper will provide identify problems with the streamline hiring process, proposed solutions and show supportive examples of the streamline hiring process. Background This expected service streamlined hiring authority, authorized by FDASIA, enables the FDA to provide a flexible and expedited mechanism for the employment of individuals for the following programs: (a) Generic Drug User Fee Amendments (GDUFA) of 2012: Up to 1,000 new employees over a three-year period, 25% in the first year, 50% in the second-year, and the remaining 25% in year three; (b) Medical Device User Fee Amendments (MDUFA) of 2012: Approximately 200 new employees year a five-year period, 90% within the first three years. The ability for FDA to hire and train staff to support FDASIA is paramount t the success of the initiative and pivotal to the ability of the agency to meet the negotiated review deadlines ... ... middle of paper ... ...his by creating job announcements for all streamline employees and tailoring their resumes so they qualify for the job position. For example, I recently graduated for undergraduate school in 2012. Under the Recent Graduates program, an employee can be converted to permanent position if they graduated from a college or university within the last two years.