The concept of types is also taken as a process of transformation, where the type is thought as the frame work within which change occurs. In this process of change, the architect can extrapolate from the type, change its use or different types can be overlapped to form a new type. Architect characterises architecture as a discipline, when an architect is able to describe new set of formal relations through new type. According to Vidler, architecture possesses the capability to generate a complete image or structure comprising subject-object relations within city, and which then propose an experience of a real and historical life inside what is yet an irreducibly structural design modality, or the critical function of typology. Therefore, to understand the subject matter of type is to understand the character of architectural object.
Form Follow Function Introduction There are several ideas that changed architecture and one of the famous idea was “form follow function”. It is a phrase that is not only used in architecture but also used in product design, engineering, urban design and popular media and culture. Some architects believed in form follow function while other like famous American architect Louis Sullivan believed that form ever follow function. In the phrase “form follow function” form can be said to follow function only if function is considered as a whole that precede form. Later by an architect Bernard Tschumi this phrase was inverted from “form follow function” and became “function follow form” by the belief that building form did not need to signify its use.
Accordingly, the different architectural styles found in architectural of an era and/or different eras are significantly shaped by the variations found in the design values embedded in the design process. In that sense, changes in architecture are created by the change in design values. To avoid, or at least, decrease repeating history, Noori’s study provided a perspective on adapting a promising concept in architecture, borrowed from philosophy: the “transvaluation” of values. Besides, since architecture is mainly connected to human life, the study considered and examined Nietzsche's “transvaluation” project. In order to do so, the study took the state of contemporary architecture as a case study for exploring the “transvaluation” theme.
Venturi (1966) remarked on the inevitable multi-functionality of spaces and thus, the necessity of multi-meaning structure for their corresponding architectural forms in his famous book titled “complexity and contradiction in architecture”. He believes that the plurality of the meaning and the functions may enhance the intensity of spatial positive ambiguity and result in architectural spaces liveliness. Accordingly, he criticized the attitude of the modern architects who follow the modernism common maxim (form following function and so the belief in having just one meaning) in their works (e.g. The Seagram building designed by Mies van der Rohe). Mies’ Seagram has only one function and then has one meaning, Venturi said while, on the other hand, Mies had claimed that the flexibility is a necessity.
The building is rarely experienced as a whole image, more as a series of moments, experienced through visual and tactile encounters. Holl puts emphasis on the essence of materials in architecture, what he refers to in his 2000 book ‘Parallax’ as “chemistry of matter”. This is essentially the essence of a material. Material for Holl can have emotive effects and can signify particular “moods” that unfold in their physcological effect. The materiality of Holl’s work becomes the medium through which we are perceptually connected to the world around us.
Deconstructivist Theory – in respect to architectural practice – aimed to create structures that characterised unpredictability and chaos in a controlled environment, distorting and dislocating typical architectural elements such as structure. This design principle focuses primarily on the externality of the building, by pushing and challenging the boundaries of traditional architectural conventions regarding structural practicality. The practitioners of deconstructivism - whilst influenced by Derrida’s philosophy and interests in radical formalism- took their physical i... ... middle of paper ... ..., separate to its postmodernist counterpart, contrasting in terms of structural geometry, physicality and concept. Where deconstructivist architecture attempts to defy the laws of physics -using rectilinear shapes and patterns- to present an atypical structural envelope that pushes the boundaries of inventiveness and continuity, postmodernism in stark contrast favours traditional and ‘normal’ processes that exude predictability and emphasise the lack of importance placed on the aestheticism of the building. As a result deconstructivist architecture and the theories on which it is based is separated from postmodernism and identified as an architectural principle of its own, with this new form of architecture now being considered the new Art Nouveau for the modern architect, with an everlasting impact on the practice of architecture for years to come.
Research on his projects will help understand how efficient presentation of particular cultural values is done by the architectural works Literature review Review of architectural projects will enlighten the researchers on the thought of other scholars about the link of architecture and culture through Architecture as an instrument of culture Architecture is hereby viewed as a dependent variable on other independent variables. Not only is it dependent on culture but also depends on political and socioeconomic factors. It has been established that architecture represents the values of culture since it reconfirms t... ... middle of paper ... ...ons. Critical architecture and architectural critic Despite his isolated way of reasoning far from cultural beliefs, Mies studies were also met by a variety of limitation. The authority of architects though exists, is very sensitive.
This expression “concrete regionalist” illustrates Ando’s somewhat poetic and insightful adaptation of concrete with reference to the context of the local area, therefore reducing the ‘critical’ characteristics of both Ando’s theoretical and practical approach towards architecture (2000, p.... ... middle of paper ... ... critical history’ – Kenneth Frampton ‘Towards a Critical Regionalism’ - Kenneth Frampton ‘The Geometry of Human Space’ – Tadao Ando ‘Border Literary Histories, Globalization, and Critical Regionalism’ - José E. Limón ‘The edges of the earth: critical regionalism as an aesthetics of the singular’ - Warwick Mules ‘Tadao Ando: The Yale Studio and Current Works’ – Kenneth Frampton ‘Shaking the Foundations: Japanese Architects in Dialogue’ - Christophe Knabe and Joerg Rainer Noennig. ‘The Japanese New Wave’ - Kenneth Frampton ‘Towards a Critical Regionalism: Six Points for an Architecture of Resistance’ - Kenneth Frampton ‘Concrete Regionalism’ - Catherine Slessor ‘Universal Civilization and National Cultures’ - Paul Ricoeur ‘The Grid and the Pathway’ - Alexander Tzonis and Liane Lefaivre ‘The South in Architecture’ - Lewis Mumford
Phenomenology is flow of philosophy which influence modern architecture and a field of research, experiencing to build materials and space in aesthetic aspects. In phenomenology, the environment is determine as ‘’the place’’. This place is not like locality but comprises of some specific things like shape, colour, material and texture, and all these merge to form the atmosphere. Phenomenology takes the idea of subjectivity and makes the situation and its unique conversation with its place the proper topic and not the thing itself. The history of phenomenology in architecture begins in 1970, over the last 30 years, from the writings of Martin Heidegger, a German philosopher, who starts to have significant effects in modern architectural theory.
Hence , the application of theory by practice is crucial and critical process . This process is therefore implemented by Interpretation in architecture. 3.d) INTERPRETATION IN ARCHITECTURE: ‘‘Interpretation is the revenge of the intellect upon art’’66 Interpretation is the implementation of the acquired knowledge and skills .The local institutes though teaches architecture effectively but the criterion to evaluate the efficient usage of the education is by the materialistic outcome of the thought process .Its the encounter of creativity and imagination with the reality. This is the product of the design pedagogy followed and the environmental illusions generated by the spatial design. ‘As architecture is a interpretive , critical art’ , which transforms in the designers mind and after several refinements yield in a design solutions.