The nature –nurture debate in lifespan development have several different points of views. The nature –nurture controversy questions whether genetics or environmental factors are causing effects in development . The nature “ referse to traits, abilities, and capacities that are inherited from ones parents”
Human development can be divided into three major areas: physical, cognitive, and affective. Physical development pertains to growth and change of the human body over time (Charlesworth, 2011). Cognitive development involves how learning takes place (Charlesworth, 2011). Affective development deals with the psychological maturation of an individual (Charlesworth, 2011). The nature versus nurture debate seeks to establish the extent of the role that inherited and environmental factors play in a person’s development in each of these areas.
Psychologist always try to find out what leads a person to a certain behaviour. On the nature side of view, it is depicted that behaviour is generally inherited and in our genes, it just sometimes needs a trigger from the environment. To understand certain kinds of behaviour and to help find the causes of patterns of behaviour, gene studies are important. The more one understands about how behaviour develops the more it is likely to prevent outbursts and mental problems and the easier it will get to predict certain types of behaviour. In general, it is believed that most personality traits are inherited and therefore genes passed on by the parents and mostly triggered by environmental factors.
Nature verses Nurture encompasses the information concerning inherited and natural environmental foundations. It shows an evolving developmental and genetic upcoming future. Motivation also as nature verses nurture uses inheritances and peripheral behaviors to develop personality. Researchers are extending the knowledge of these ideas, and ideas, such as view of self, the unconscious, development, and maturation. How people progressed and when they have progressed, consecutively shows evidence of chromosomal individualities, and some environmental factors play a part in our personality development.
Nature vs. Nurture 2 Nature vs. Nurture: Nature vs. Nurture centers on the contributions of inheritance of genetics and environmental factors in human development. The question is whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture? Nature refers to an organism biological inheritance. Nurture is referred by environmental experiences. Nurture has been expanded to include the influences on development that come from parental, prenatal, distance families and peer experiences.
Epigenetics is one of the main topics studied in medical genetics today. Monozygotic twins are used to prove that differences in the epigenome due to certain factors are the reason why monozygotic twins change as they age. Genes provide the instructions for the development and maintenance of the body. There is a second set of instructions known as the epigenome, which interacts with DNA to suppress or activate the expression of some genes. Epigenetic tags turn genes off or on, without changing the genetic code.
Darwin’s theory ties to “nature versus nurture” because its basis lies in the assumption that we are born with innate abilities. These innate abilities are then adjusted based on the environment to ensure survival. Darwin’s theory of Evolution eventually transformed into psychology’s school of thought called functionalism. Functionalism is the study of human behavior and mental processes and how these behaviors and processes assist the individual in adapting to the constantly changing environment. Darwin’s observations and theories eventually lead to the formation of comparative psychology, or the systematic study of similarities and differences within a species (Goodwin, 2012, p.141-142).
Although it seems as if sometimes it’s a natural thing to act a specific way, the environment we find ourselves in is what ultimately shapes and constraints us to act in a certain matter (“What is Personality,” 2009). The behaviorist perspective on personality seeks to develop explanations of behavior; behaviorist believe that personality develops as people interact with others in their environments. Thus, personality development is a complex process but there are many potential environmental influences that help to shape it (Moore, 2013). Behaviorism is a theory of personality that sees everything in terms of conditioning. The theory was founded by John B. Watson who believed that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behavior.
Learning theories can be understood through two theorists- B.F. Skinner, and John Watson. Biological/evolutionary theories are explained and enhanced by David Buss and Hans Esnyeck. The learning theories attempt to understand individual changes by studying the idea of learnt traits, characteristics and actions. Whereas biological/evolutionary theories attempt to understand the functions of these changes. Have chosen
This essay will discuss the Nature versus Nurture debate, and how twin and adoption studies have influenced on this debate. This is essay will go into support of how over time adoption and twin studies helped form this debate into understanding that both nature and nurture impact development. Adoption studies have played a vital part in the hereditary (Nature) aspect of this debate and twin studies will show support of how the environment (Nurture) still plays a large role within development. Further discussing how both Nature and Nurture jointly play a vital role in human development The debate of Nature versus Nurture also denoted to as heredity versus environment or nativism versus empiricism is one of the most fundamental and age-old theoretical issues within psychology (Bee, 2000). Nature is understood to be the hereditary information established from parents at the time of conception – biological givens (Berk, 2010) and Nurture can be defined as “the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological make-up and psychological experiences before and after birth (Berk, 2010 p.7).