In this essay, published in 1738, Voltaire explains the philosophies of not only Newton, but in a large part Descartes because of his contributions in the fields of geometry. In Voltaire's concise explanation of Newton's and other philosophers' paradigms related in the fields of astronomy and physics, he employs geometry through diagrams and pictures and proves his statements with calculus. Voltaire in fact mentions that this essay is for the people who have the desire to teach themselves, and makes the intent of the book as a textbook. In 25 chapters, and every bit of 357 pages, as well as six pages of definitions, Voltaire explains Newton's discoveries in the field of optics, the rainbow spectrum and colors, musical notes, the Laws of Attraction, disproving the philosophy of Descarte's cause of gravity and structure of light, and proving Newton's new paradigm, or Philosophy as Voltaire would have called it. Voltaire in a sense created the idea that Newton's principles were a new philosophy and acknowledged the possibility for errors.
He used an astronomical tower, a moon and sun tracking device and an astrolabe to develop a revolutionary heliocentric view of the universe. For many years scientists descri... ... middle of paper ... ...l in solving problems in mechanics and physics using nonlinear equations. His research and reporting helped develop the modern ideas and laws of the universe. With educated and unbiased recordings of the universe humans have a more precise view of the workings around us. Luckily there were inquisitive and relentless men who dedicated their lives and risked their freedom to provide detailed and accurate information about the universe.
Johannes Kepler Johannes Kepler is now remembered for discovering the three laws of planetary motion, and writing about them in books that were published in 1609 and 1619. He also did important work in optics, discovered two new regular polyhedra, gave the first mathematical treatment of close packing of equal spheres, gave the first proof of how logarithms worked, and devised a method of finding the volumes of solids of revolution. This can be seen as contributing to the development of calculus. Not only did he help the development of calculus, but he calculated the most exact astronomical tables known today. This accuracy did much to establish the truth of heliocentric astronomy, which states that the sun, and not the earth, was the center of the planetary system.
His manuscripts caused much controversy between both the european sciences and religion. Copernicus was the first to combine physics, astronomy, and mathematics into a fact-based model of the universe. Copernicus has had a major impact in our modern sciences. Copernicus not only challenged the widely accepted belief of a geocentric model, but developed the heliocentric model which revolutionized the way people thought about the configuration of our solar system and our universe.
Then each letter, like an atom, can be represented by a specific number as well. The world of numbers came about in the early years of civilization: it was the spark of curiosity that caused the founding fathers of math and science to enlarge this world to what it is today. Numerology is a topic that is said to prove truth or fact, but some may be true while the other parts a little hard to mentally digest. The pseudo science of numerology is old in its age and is still used today; it is also very extensive and intricate in its details and procedures. The origin of numerology dates back to a time long before the striving civilization of todays society.
The ancients needed a model with which to justify the constantly changing positions of the moon and planets. Instead of being based on subjective observations, a hypothesis should be the sole product of a scientist's imagination. Popper calls this "an irrational element" or a "creative intuition" (Williams, 1989). Sir Isaac Newton is an excellent exam... ... middle of paper ... ... scientific community learns from the experience and knowledge becomes a cumulative project. Popper does a great service to the scientific community by stating and refining the obvious way science has worked for centuries.
Archimedes used infinite sequences of triangular areas to calculate the area of a parabolic segment, as an example of summation of an infinite series. He also used the Method of Exhaustion, invented by Antiphon, to approximate the area of a circle, as an example of early integration. Realizing Indian mathematicians, Aryabhata e... ... middle of paper ... ...ocity. On the other hand, Leibniz had taken a geometrical approach, basing his discoveries on the work of previous thinkers like Fermat and Pascal. Though Newton had been the first to derive calculus as a mathematical approach, Leibniz was the first one to widely disseminate the concept throughout Europe.
Where did we get knowledge of the stars, mathematic theorems, and have ideas of gods or goddesses? This knowledge just did not float from thin air as a simple idea for a movie, but was discovered by ancient Greek philosophers. Science is the understanding of knowledge and to use observation. Greeks had a great influence in the discoveries of science because they discovered astronomy, chemistry, and mythology and also they have helped the scientist today to create new tools and new discoveries. Greeks have been following rulers that have been entering Greece and claiming the control to their people.
Later Greek scientists, such as Archimedes, developed complicated models of the heavens-celestial spheres-that illustrated the "wandering" of the sun, the moon, and the planets against the fixed position of the stars. Shortly after Archimedes, Ctesibus created the Clepsydra in the 2nd century BC. A more elaborate version of the common water clock, the Clepsydra was quite popular in ancient Greece. However, the development of stereography by Hipparchos in 150 BC. radically altered physical representations of the heavens.
He read books on geometry by Descartes, algebra books by John Wallis, and eventually developed the binomial theorem which was a shortcut in multiplying binomials (Margaret, 46). Newton was 22 at this time and he was already going beyond other people's thinking.... ... middle of paper ... ...e began by mastering mathematics. He developed calculus in order for him to find the rate of change of objects. He learned about light and colors, which lead to his invention of the refracting telescope. He was the man that finally built a model of astronomy and physics and in doing so, brought together the work of Kepler and Galileo and of course his own findings on gravity (Margaret, 90).