Mathematics starts with counting. It is not reasonable, however, to suggest that early counting was mathematics. Only when some record of the counting was kept and, therefore, some representation of numbers occurred can mathematics be said to have started. In Babylonia mathematics developed from 2000 BC. Earlier a place value notation number system had evolved over a lengthy period with a number base of 60. It allowed arbitrarily large numbers and fractions to be represented and so proved to be the foundation of more high powered mathematical development. Number problems such as that of the Pythagorean triples (a,b,c) with a2+b2 = c2 were studied from at least 1700 BC. Systems of linear equations were studied in the context of solving number problems. Quadratic equations were also studied and these examples led to a type of numerical algebra. Geometric problems relating to similar figures, area and volume were also studied and values obtained for p.The Babylonian basis of mathematics was inherited by the Greeks and independent development by the Greeks began from around 450 BC. Zeno of Elea's paradoxes led to the atomic theory of Democritus. A more precise formulation of concepts led to the realisation that the rational numbers did not suffice to measure all lengths. A geometric formulation of irrational numbers arose. Studies of area led to a form of integration. The theory of conic sections show a high point in pure mathematical study by Apollonius. Further mathematical discoveries were driven by the astronomy, for example the study of trigonometry. The major Greek progress in mathematics was from 300 BC to 200 AD. After this time progress continued in Islamic countries. Mathematics flourished in particular in Iran, Syria and India. This work did not match the progress made by the Greeks but in addition to the Islamic progress, it did preserve Greek mathematics. From about the 11th Century Adelard of Bath, then later Fibonacci, brought this Islamic mathematics and its knowledge of Greek mathematics back into Europe. Major progress in mathematics in Europe began again at the beginning of the 16th Century with Pacioli, then Cardan, Tartaglia and Ferrari with the algebraic solution of cubic and quartic equations. Copernicus and Galileo revolutionised the applications of mathematics to the study of the universe. The progress in algebra had a major psychologic...

... middle of paper ...

...ever have taken place without logs. Then the world changed. The pocket calculator appeared. The logarithm remains an important mathematical function but its use in calculating has gone for ever. Here is the challenge. What will replace the calculator? You might say that this is an unfair question. However let me remind you that Napier invented the basic concepts of a mechanical computer at the same time as logs. The basic ideas that will lead to the replacement of the pocket calculator are almost certainly around us. We can think of faster calculators, smaller calculators, better calculators but I'm asking for something as different from the calculator as the calculator itself is from log tables. I have an answer to my own question but it would spoil the point of my challenge to say what it is. Think about it and realise how difficult it was to invent non-euclidean geometries, groups, general relativity, set theory, and everything else to do with MATH!

Einstein and his Theory

What do you think when some one says Einstein, is it Relativity, or E=MC2? What do you think E=MC2 means, well it means Energy=Mass x Speed of Light Squared. He was way ahead of his own time, he was a genius!

... middle of paper ...

...ever have taken place without logs. Then the world changed. The pocket calculator appeared. The logarithm remains an important mathematical function but its use in calculating has gone for ever. Here is the challenge. What will replace the calculator? You might say that this is an unfair question. However let me remind you that Napier invented the basic concepts of a mechanical computer at the same time as logs. The basic ideas that will lead to the replacement of the pocket calculator are almost certainly around us. We can think of faster calculators, smaller calculators, better calculators but I'm asking for something as different from the calculator as the calculator itself is from log tables. I have an answer to my own question but it would spoil the point of my challenge to say what it is. Think about it and realise how difficult it was to invent non-euclidean geometries, groups, general relativity, set theory, and everything else to do with MATH!

Einstein and his Theory

What do you think when some one says Einstein, is it Relativity, or E=MC2? What do you think E=MC2 means, well it means Energy=Mass x Speed of Light Squared. He was way ahead of his own time, he was a genius!

Related

- Good Essays
## The History of Math

- 810 Words
- 2 Pages

The history of math has become an important study, from ancient to modern times it has been fundamental to advances in science, engineering, and philosophy. Mathematics started with counting. In Babylonia mathematics developed from 2000B.C. A place value notation system had evolved over a lengthy time with a number base of 60. Number problems were studied from at least 1700B.C. Systems of linear equations were studied in the context of solving number problems.

- 810 Words
- 2 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Biography of Albert Einstein

- 566 Words
- 2 Pages

Although Einstein is mostly known for his famous equation, e=mc2, he accomplished many things in his life that affects science today and is one of most admirable person of the twentieth century and one of the supreme intellects of all time.

- 566 Words
- 2 Pages

Good Essays - Powerful Essays
## Earliest Civilization is the Region of Mesopotamia Because of Their Language of Cuneiform

- 1416 Words
- 3 Pages

...onians for are the calendar, units of measurement including length, volume, and weight, the 360 degree circle, knowledge of lunar eclipses, square roots, and exponents. Obviously, the Babylonians were a fascinating people, and studying about them offers many insights into their culture. It is so important for modern people to look back on the contributions of this amazing society and to ponder what can be learned from them and their inventions. Today’s society and mathematical understanding would not be nearly as advanced if it had not been for the Babylonians. The people of today are forever indebted to them. Their achievements in mathematics are astounding to modern minds because we assume that such mathematical concepts are more modern in origin. But the proof is there, on those tablets, the ones baked in the Sun. Math in ancient Babylon was advanced indeed.

- 1416 Words
- 3 Pages

Powerful Essays - Better Essays
## The History Of Calculus

- 1469 Words
- 3 Pages

Calculus, the mathematical study of change, can be separated into two departments: differential calculus, and integral calculus. Both are concerned with infinite sequences and series to define a limit. In order to produce this study, inventors and innovators throughout history have been present and necessary. The ancient Greeks, Indians, and Enlightenment thinkers developed the basic elements of calculus by forming ideas and theories, but it was not until the late 17th century that the theories and concepts were being specified. Originally called infinitesimal calculus, meaning to create a solution for calculating objects smaller than any feasible measurement previously known through the use of symbolic manipulation of expressions. Generally accepted, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz were recognized as the two major inventors and innovators of calculus, but the controversy appeared when both wanted sole credit of the invention of calculus. This paper will display the typical reason of why Newton was the inventor of calculus and Leibniz was the innovator, while both contributed an immense amount of knowledge to the system.

- 1469 Words
- 3 Pages

Better Essays - Better Essays
## Albert Einstein

- 1132 Words
- 3 Pages

Thus, Einstein was one of the fathers of the nuclear age. Einstein's famous equation, E equals m times c-squared (energy equals mass times the velocity of light squared), became a foundation stone in the development of nuclear energy. Einstein developed his theory through deep philosophical thought and through complex mathematical reasoning. The great scientist was once reported to have said that only a dozen people in the world could understand his theory. However, Einstein always denied this report. See Relativity.

- 1132 Words
- 3 Pages

Better Essays - Best Essays
## The Foundation of The United States of America

- 1795 Words
- 4 Pages
- 12 Works Cited

“The great book of nature can be ready only by those who know the language in which it was written. And that language is mathematics.”(Galilei, Galileo). Math is all around us, when people think of math, they think of equation and calculation. However, math is arguably one of most crucial and fundamental elements that controls and keeps our live going. Athens Greece is the foundation of math, with the brilliant mind of Archimedes and Pythagoras emerge the ideas of Pi and the Pythagorean Theorem. These two simple concepts helped United States and the world to achieve ground breaking and revolutionary discoveries. Pythagorean Theorem can be simply used in the architectural sense, but it can also be used to pinpoint two reference points. This simple equation is what modern GPS system uses to pinpoint and calculate the designated route, NASA uses advancement mathematics and Pythagorean theorem to determine the ...

- 1795 Words
- 4 Pages
- 12 Works Cited

Best Essays - Good Essays
## Albert Einstein And The Theory Of Special Relativity

- 745 Words
- 2 Pages

In 1905, Albert Einstein confirmed the Theory of Special Relativity. This stated that objects moving at a constant speed move in relation to each other. This discovery managed to unify space and time, as a concept, because of how things appear differently in space depending on the speed someone is going. This wasn’t the only concept that was a result of the Theory of Special Relativity, however. Another idea that came about as a result of the Theory of Special Relativity was the Mass-Energy Equivalence. This idea states that the energy exerted by an object is equal to the mass of that object. The Mass-Energy Equivalence is described by the equation “E = mc²”, the “E” representing energy, the “m” representing mass, and the “c” representing the speed of light. The Mass-Energy Equivalence theory was developed by Albert Einstein and thoroughly explains how mass and energy work together, as well as contributing to the development of hospital diagnostics and space technology.

- 745 Words
- 2 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
Albert Einstein’s discoveries and theories have had a positively enormous effect on the world. Some of Einstein’s biggest impacting discoveries and theories are the theories of Special and General relativity, the Theory of Relativity, Brownian motion, the discovery of the photon, and Einstein’s creation of the equation E = MC^2. Perhaps Einstein’s most beneficial discovery is his formulation of E = MC^2 which is crucial for space-flight and can help today’s scientist in gathering knowledge about our universe.

- 1835 Words
- 4 Pages

Good Essays - Good Essays
## Mesopotamian Civilization Essay

- 858 Words
- 2 Pages

They constructed the 12-month calendar which they based on the cycles of the moon. Other than that, they also created a mathematical system based on the number 60 which they called the Sexagesimal. Though, our mathematics today is not based on their system it acts like a foundation for some mathematicians. They also used the basic mathematics- addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, in keeping track of their records- one of their contributions to this world, bookkeeping. It was also suggested that they even discovered the number of the pi for they knew how to solve the circumference of the circle (Atif, 2013).

- 858 Words
- 2 Pages

Good Essays - Satisfactory Essays
## Greek Influences on Western Civilization

- 340 Words
- 1 Pages

Geometry, a cornerstone in modern civilization, also had its beginnings in Ancient Greece. Euclid, a mathematician, formed many geometric proofs and theories [Document 5]. He also came to one of the most significant discoveries of math, Pi. This number showed the ratio between the diameter and circumference of a circle.

- 340 Words
- 1 Pages

Satisfactory Essays