The lack of prenatal care for women who are unable to financially afford it, or don’t see the need of it, is mainly to blame for the thousands of low birthweight babies born in the U.S. every year. According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [Office on Women’s Health] (2009), “Babies of mothers who do not get prenatal care are three times more likely to have a low birthweight and five times more likely to die than those born to mothers who do get care” (p. 1). Prenatal care in the U.S. began as a preventive measure against preeclampsia, which at the time included program visits by physicians who conducted physicals, history, and risk assessments. Over the years, prenatal care has changed its focus to low birthweight and other preventive illnesses in an attempt to reduce the rate of infant mortality. Increased use of prenatal care has shown a decline in the rates of birthweight-related mortality and other preventable medical diseases such as post-partum depression and infant injuries.
This perinatal racial disparity is evidenced by a wide array of social, cultural and behavioral factors that have an impact on LBW infants born to African American women. This paper will examine those contributing factors. Target Population African American women make up 13 percent of the female population and are subject to severe racial and ethnic disparities (Guerra, 2013). Only one in four African American women have health insurance (Guerra, 2013). This fact, along with other socioeconomic factors, contributes greatly to the poor health care outcomes that African American women experience, as when they finally do receive access to health care, it is usually late onset care.
Low birth weight is a multifaceted public health problem and it is major determinant of mortality, morbidity and disability in neonates, infancy and child hood.The low birth weight will be created problems associate with society, health sector and economy of country. When we consider about the world, its fluctuated among the country. The developing countries have high percentage of low birth weight compared with developed countries. According to the world health organization, in developing countries has been estimated to effect between 14 and 20 million infants per year, or as many as 30 million is equal to 11% of all birth in developing countries. At the national level, highest incident for low birth weight respectively are Bangladesh (50%, 39%), India(28%, 21%), Pakistan (25%, 18%) and in Sri Lanka(19%, 13%).
Contraception Options for Women Introduction and Background: Infant mortality is the fourth and sixth leading cause of death in Afghanistan (HEALTH PROFILE : AFGHANISTAN).According to The World Fact Book, 119.41 infants died per 1,000 live births, which is the highest infant mortality rate in the world. Infants die due to low birth weights, labor complications, and lack of family planning. On average a woman dies every 30 minutes in Afghanistan from a perinatal event; therefore, the infant mortality rate will remain at a high level (Johnson, 2011). Family planning provides safe alternatives to the risk of infant and maternal mortality; also, it is a low cost economical way to reduce maternal and fetal deaths in countries that lack adequate recourse for women (Diamond-Smith & Potts, 2011). Family planning is essential to the health of infants and expecting mothers.
All of these are risk factors that are likely to have a bearing on the child’s social inequalities on their health. The biological factors include premature birth, low birth weight, and a serious medical illness. The significantly influence and infants growth. “Low birth weight, less than 2500 grams, has a prevalence of 6 percent in white middle-class U.S. women, and 15 percent in ethnic minority teenagers. These teenagers tend to be single mothers.” At the Infant Health and Development Project, they found that in a large amount of premature infants, that their IQ was less than 85 at three years of age.
Low birth weight has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as weight at birth of less than2500 grams (5.5 pounds). According to their survey results low birth weight babies are approximately 20 times have the chance of being fatal than normal babies within the first year of their life time. This LBW has become a crucial issue especially in the developing countries rather than in the developed countries. According to the estimat... ... middle of paper ... ...gher chance of delivering LBW babies. LBW babies are become such a crucial problem because Low-birth-weight can be affected in later in the life time too.
Causes and consequences of Low Birth Weight Low birth weight (LBW) has become a public health problem in many regions of the world and it is the predominant cause of infant mortality. According to statistics of World Health Organization, there are about 30 million of low birth weight babies born in the world annually. Low Birth weight can be defined as the birth weight of a new born baby of less than 2.500 Kg regardless their gestational age at birth. This can be seen on both preterm babies as well as mature babies who have slow prenatal growth rate. Infants who are Low Birth Weight are more likely to have both short term and long term severe health consequences.
Neonatal mortality is mainly attributed to causes relating to short gestation and low birth weights. Things such as SIDS, congenital malformations and unintentional injuries are causes that are considered post neonatal. The infant mortality rate for the United States as of 2011 was 23, 910 deaths, this is 6.05 deaths per 1,000. Although the infant mortality rate has decreased since 2005 it is still fairly high, especially for a first world country. The sad truth is although there are ways to prevent infant mortality it is still occurring very frequently.
Though there was a higher number of deaths at 5,340, due to the fact that the age distribution was slightly more heavy on those that were younger. These death we 're caused by a range of incidents such as accidents, cancer, and self harm (“Child Health”, 2016). Over the past three decades the United States has experienced an increased improvement in the the mortality rate of pediatric patients. From 1990 to 2011 the average number of teen death per 100,000 of the population decreased by 20. Shifting from 46 teen death in 1990 to 26 in 2011 (“The Annie E. Casey Foundation”, 2014).
In 2011, there were 1,086 infant deaths in Ohio alone (James, 2013). That is 1,086 lives that were not given the chance to grow up and give something back to the world. According to The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2006), prenatal care that is ongoing or begins early on can help identify behavior and conditions that can result in low birth weight babies. Women who receive no prenatal care during their pregnancy are three times more likely to have babies born with low birth weight; these women are also five times more likely to have their babies die when compared with women who receive prenatal care. These statistics emphasize the importance of focusing efforts on creating better access for women to receive prenatal care in order to reduce the Infant Mortality Rate in Ohio.