Mass Shooting Events Committed By Younger Shooters

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Thisarticlepresents2studiesoftheassociationofmediaviolencerateswithsocietalviolence rates.Inthefirststudy,movieviolenceandhomicideratesareexaminedacrossthe20thcenturyandintothe21st(1920–2005).Throughoutthemid-20thcenturysmall-to-moderate correlationalrelationshipscanbeobservedbetweenmovieviolenceandhomicideratesin the United States. This trend reversed in the early and latter 20th century, with movie violenceratesinverselyrelatedtohomiciderates.Inthesecondstudy,videogameviolence consumptionisexaminedagainstyouthviolenceratesintheprevious2decades.Videogame consumptionisassociatedwithadeclineinyouthviolencerates.Resultssuggestthatsocietalconsumptionofmediaviolenceisnotpredictiveofincreasedsocietalviolencerates. Keywords:Violence,MediaViolence,Movies,Homicide,MassMedia. doi:10.1111/jcom.12129 Thereareprobablyfewculturaldebatesthathavebeenwagedforsolongastheissue of whether media violence contributes meaningfully to societal violence. Following tragic mass shooting events committed by younger shooters, many politicians point toculturalinfluencesasapotentialcontributingfactor(e.g.,Boleik,2012),although others dismiss media as a contributing factor (e.g., Palmer, 2013). Similar divisions are seen within the social science community. For example, some professional advocacy groups such as the American Psychological Association (APA, 2005) have released policy statements unequivocally linking media violence to societal aggression.Recently,however,agroupofapproximately230mediascholars,criminologists, and psychologists wrote an open letter to the APA asking them to retire their policy statements and refrain from making such causal attributions (Consortium of Scholars, 2013). As such, no consensus among scholars exists regarding the impact of... ... middle of paper ... ...ateandwerereplacedwithfilmsfromthesameoradjacentyear(MataHari,Seven Chances, The Lost World, Phantom of the Opera, Last of the Mohicans, Within Our Gates,TheKid).Afulllistoffilmsincludedintheanalysisisavailableuponrequest. Each movie was rated for violent content using an interval rating approach. Trained raters viewed each movie and recorded at each 1-min interval whether any violent acts had occurred during the previous minute. Interval rating was used due to difficulty in interpreting strict count-based rating. For instance, a movie might include a brief war scene with hundreds of simultaneous acts of violence in a short period, yet be relatively nonviolent otherwise. It did not appear that such a movie should be considered more violent due to a strict count than a movie that included individual acts of violence throughout. Violence was defined for the purpose of

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