Ultimately empowering the U.S. government, strengthening it with the ability to determine and control the popular perception of reality. One way in which government achieves this objective, is by its ability to misuse the media’s ability to set the agenda. Contrary to popular belief, media is in fact an enormous hegemony. In fact, separate independent news organizations relatively do not exist. Rather than creating an independent structured agenda of there own, generally lesser smaller news organizations adapt to a prepared agenda, previously constructed by a higher medium.
There have also been examples of newspaper editors not doing what they have been asked to do by owners of their papers. It is true that sometimes the media will convey a particular view but there is such variety, with in media like newspapers that people have a choice in what view to agree with. Marxism also fails to recognise that people can make up their own minds about issues. The general populous are not so naive that they cannot make up their own minds. The weight of evidence shows that the media makes a great effort to cater for a range of views and opinions and rather than trying to control the population it simply supplys a demand.
Americans focus on what the media frequently shows us rather than the little heard of issues of greater importance. A large nu... ... middle of paper ... ...what they are running for. However, the media has many bad influences on politics ranging from, ads that promote uninformed voting, all the way to only informing the public about what they believe to be important. I do believe that the media does exercise too much power in America. They should not be allowed to present biased news to the public and should let the people make up their own minds on what they want to believe.
On the contrary, media agents believe adamantly that politicians are representatives of an electorate and, in light of this, they maintain that it is their duty to uphold democracy. It is only through the identification of hypocrisies within the government that democracy will survive. It is possible to argue that the press does go some way to provide an extension of the checks and balances of our government, but this must always be seen in the light of their own personal agendas which is to sell papers and make money. The role of the media in modern British society is huge and its effects on politics are vast. Despite all its flaws and political biases, it provides an invaluable service to the nation in that it reminds us that we have a fundamental right to speak our own beliefs and to know what is going on in government.
In reality, the policy process is more fluid, where policies are formed through the struggle of ideas of various advocacy coalitions (Sabatier, 1991) in what has been described as a policy primeval soup (Kingdon, 1995). The policies, on which the media focuses can, and often does, play an important part in determining the focal issues for policymakers. One of the fundamental roles of the media in a liberal democracy is to critically scrutinise governmental affairs: that is to act as a watchdog of government to ensure that the government can be held accountable by the public. However, the systematic deregulation of media systems worldwide is diminishing the ability of citizens to meaningfully participate in policymaking process governing the media (McChesney, 2003, p. 126). The relaxation of ownership rules and control, has resulted in a move away from diversity of production to a situation where media ownership is becoming increasing concentrated by just a few predominantly western global conglomerates (M... ... middle of paper ... ... small media reforms (like public journalism) will be enough to reduce the commercial and corporate imperatives driving our existing media systems (Hackett and Zhao, 1998, p. 235).
Through discussing Media frames a ... ... middle of paper ... ...se of news worthiness and sometimes occurs unconsciously through priming and agenda setting role of the media. Oscar Hall supports this position by stating that in each society there is a dominant ideology that most members accept without reflection: it is the common sense of the culture for example Terrorism, capitalism and communism. Mcleod and Herttog (2001 : 141-161) support this conclusion by stating it is difficult to separate ideology and framing especially if you look at it from the priming perspective and conclude in their study that frames to be reflective of and influential in supporting the powerful institutions in society which is true according to Marxist theory for example the passing of Patriotic Act by Congress in the USA after September 911 bombing which infringes on human rights and freedoms upon which that the American society is founded.
In the comparison of interest and pressure groups it is apparent that although they created resentment in the inner layers of government, they were necessary to the development and progress of the political system. According to David B. Truman in the excerpt from The Governmental Process he demonstrates the need, influence and the importance of containment of lobby groups. Although lobby groups are separated into organized groups and unofficial groups, he considers them both equally important and dangerous interest groups. Through his writings he also demonstrates his opinion that political parties are only a large form of an interest group. Political parties don’t have as many concurrent attitudes because of its influence on impressionable people and its size, but nevertheless it is an interest group.
Manheim's view about what the mass media system actually does to the news is similar to what W. Lance Bennett lists as the four main media biases: fragmentation, normalization, personalization and dramatization (Bennett, 1996). These biases are described by Manheim as the media system "[rendering] the content of the news less burdensome by packaging it more attractively" (Manheim, 1991). Contrary to Manheim's views, Rushkoff looks at how the viewers are able to use and understand the media's messages. Rather than viewing the media as a mass system composed of the elite who view the public as a commodity, Rushkoff believes that the people strive to shape and understand the world through the messages the media portrays. Furthermore, he claims that the media is merely a reflection of the society that the viewers themselves have created.
If they begin to put forward their own opinions or beliefs about certain issues, then they are only appealing to the people who share these ideas. If these ideas are extremely controversial then a very limited amount of people would buy the newspaper. Therefore, if the newspapers want to sell very well and make a profit, then they need to portray views, ideas and beliefs appealing to the majority of the public otherwise they would “risk going out of business.” Basically pluralists are saying that the mass media is a democratic organisation, as it is the public who decides which media product is successful. “If the media have any influence over people, it is because they reflect and reinforce society’s basic values, not because they impose their ideas on the public.” ... ... middle of paper ... ...is usually results in the want to eradicate men from women’s lives completely, resulting in lesbianism. It is the most extreme form of feminism; it is fully built on the foundation belief that men have a desire to control women.
In the stories presented by both of these writers, viewers and readers witness a dystopian world where the government controls the people, and people are conditioned to like the social class set for them, whether it be lower, middle, or upper class. Although, despite the fact that these stories have less violence because people are conditioned, this type of society is inhuman. Seeing that people should have the right to free will, and they should have the right to work themselves up despite how low they started. However, socially stabilized is not what humans are meant to be, we are meant to socialize with one another and learn from one another. In this type of society, socializing with people from different classes is not common, and different class marriage is not allowed, or marriage isn’t allowed at all.