Marcus Garvey “Final Exam” Marcus Garvey, was born in Jamaica in 1887 and is considered to be the father of the Black Nationalism Movement. During the early 1900’s, after reading Booker T. Washington’s Up From Slavery, Garvey pledged to organize Blacks throughout the world with an agenda of Black unity and pride. Moreover, Garvey achieved his greatest influence in the Untied States where there was a growing ambition among Blacks for justice, wealth, and a sense of community. From the time of World War I, up until the mid-1920’s, Gravey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA) was the largest Black organization in African-American history. An estimated million men and women from the United States, the Caribbean, and Africa belonged to it.
I believe the turning point in Marcus Garveyâ€™s fight for African freedom and equality came after he read Booker T. Washingtonâ€™s book, Up From Slavery. Garvey â€œresponded warmly to itâ€™s thesis of black self helpâ€? (Kranz, Koslow 86). With that notion in mind Marcus Garvey returned to Jamaica in 1914 ready to make a difference. Marcus was not noticed for just one accomplishment is his lifetime, but many on them.
Although he does not agree with Muslim doctrine, Baldwin recognizes the power of the Nation of Islam movement, particularly during a period of tremendous civil unrest. Research supports that Elijah Muhammad, the leader of the Black Muslims in the 1960’s, also found that time period to be very opportunistic for the Nation of Islam movement. In an article from the New York Times written by M.S. Handler in the early sixties, Muhammad quotes that he “…is confident that his organization, and his alone, stands to gain from the racial turmoil in the United States” (Handler 14). Like Baldwin, Muhammad recognizes that in a world where racial segregation is being challenged and the entire path of black history is being reevaluated and denounced, radical ideas are more likely to flourish.
The Harlem Renaissance was one of the most culturally important reformations in America. The Harlem Renaissance directly influenced many great civil rights leaders, and one could argue was the foundation for the battle of equality. Many great members of the Harlem Renaissance committed their whole life in order to improve race relations for themselves and for the future of the race. The strength African Americans achieved during the period after slavery through until the Harlem Renaissance provided them with enough strength to persevere. The atrocities African Americans went through during the early 20th century can only be matched by the years of enduring slavery.
After World War I, segregation policies known as Jim Crow Laws were enforced in the South and forced the blacks to contribute to the sharecropping system. In the meantime, the North was lacking a great number of industrial workers due to the shortage of European immigrants after the Great War. Thus, many of the black southerners left and moved to the North. The increased black population in the North during the Great Migration created a new black urban culture for themselves. The Great Migration led to an increase in African American political involvement that would make an impact in black culture ever since.
Born in St. Ann’s Bay, Jamaica, Marcus Garvey was a political leader, journalist, and entrepreneur. A hero to millions of blacks, Garvey was scorned by many of the other leaders and intellectuals over basic questions of leadership. The title “ Africa for the Africans “ was an idea to encourage all the African Americans to leave the United States and return to Africa to develop a strong nation. Garvey target was to aimed blacks everywhere, but achieved his greatest impact in the United States. Marcus Garvey founded one of the most important organizations of the twentieth century, the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
Marcus Garvey was a man who undertook enormous and grandiose ideas and goals to empower and rise Black people all over the world. A man literally driven by the notion that the Negro's sole means for achieving a unique culture in the 20th century was through the foundation of a unified, separatist empire in Africa. Although his ideas, in their ultimate form, may have been rejected by some of the people of his day, it is clear that, since then, these very same ideas in a different perspective have had a favorable influence on the policies of many Negro leaders throughout history. BIBLIOGRAPHY Altman, Susan. Extraordinary Black Americans.
Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. Du Bois Impact the Fight for Racial Equality The beginning of the early twentieth century saw the rise of two important men into the realm of black pride and the start of what would later become the movement towards civil rights. Both Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. Du Bois influenced these two aforementioned movements, but the question is, to what extent? Marcus Garvey, born in Jamaica, came to the United States on March 23, 1916 to spread "his program of race improvement" (Cronon, 20).
At this time, blacks were still suppressed very greatly. Dubois, having had lived in an all black community, experienced racism first-hand in the North (Donalson, 558). The hardships of the African American race led this man to be a great student, teacher, leader, and activist. Dubois even exemplified great intellect at a young age. When he was fifteen years old, he was a correspondent for the New York Globe (Hynes, 4).
There were many gains earned after the Civil War seemed lost by the time of World War I because racial violence and lynching reached an all time high. However, both the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the National Urban League (NUL) were founded by blacks and whites during this time. Both of these major civil rights organizations make efforts on the part of blacks and their white allies to insure that the United States provides "freedom and justice to all". The year of Washington's death marked the beginning of the Great Migration from the rural South to the urban North. He is known as one of the best civil rights leaders for the African American people in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s.