One of the most devastating effects of flood events is the loss of life, along with the damage to properties. Other effects include economic loss, disturbance of ecological resources, food shortages and starvation (Haq et al., 2012). The amount of warning time that is provided to the population at risk of flooding has been described as key factor to prevent the loss of lives (Graham, 1999). Therefore, adequate prediction capability is essential to mitigate flooding damages and establish flood-warning systems. Floods have a complex spatial and temporal dynamic that motivates their study.
Phytoremediation: Insuring Safe Selenium Levels Selenium is a naturally occurring element found in soil. It becomes a problem when irrigation practices cause it to leach out of the soils in the western states. The selenium is deposited in the rivers, then accumulates until it reaches toxic levels. The high levels of selenium seriously affects the environment and agriculture downstream. However, with the use of phytoremediation, the possibility of safe selenium levels has never been closer.
Sedimentation and clarification. Retrieved from http://www.gewater.com/handbook/treatment_sedimentation/clarification.htm Wieffering, N. & Swift, P. (2007). Construction plumbing. Cape Town, South Africa: Pearson Education South Africa Ltd. World Health Organization, (2004). Water treatment and pathogen control: Process efficiency in achieving safe drinking water.
285290. J D Ishtok, R M Coopper (1998), K Geostatistics applied to Groundwater pollution III, Global estimates, Journal of Environmental Engineering,114, pp.915-928. N Jager (1990), Hydrogeology and Groundwater simulation, Lewis Publishers, Newyork. R Mehrjardi, A Akbarzadeh, Sh Mahmoodi and A Heidari (2008), Application of Geostatistical methods for mapping groundwater quality in Azarbayjan province, Iran, American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science, 3, pp. 726735.
This is due to the excessive accumulation of nutrients at a much faster speed caused by human error. Cultural eutrophication happens when surface run-off, that contains nitrates and phosphates, moves from one place to another, ending up in a river or lake. Unfortunately, there are times when these nutrients end up being leached into the groundwater. At times eutrophication may be severe enough that it causes the oxygen in these water bodies to become quite low. The results of this is seen in the harmful effect it has on aquatic wildlife, creating what is referred to as dead zones.
Also, salinity in irrigation water can be detrimental to agriculture, reducing yields and killing crops with low tolerances to salt. In some... ... middle of paper ... ...t Modeling of the Flow Through Porous Media". OWRT-C-4026(9006)(4). Office of Water Resources and Technology, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
Currently, Americans are doing both. However, we are also learning more about conservation and creating new technology that can help us preserve our precious freshwater. Perhaps in the near future, we will all be more aware of this precious resource that we all depend on to survive. If one looks at the actual amount of fresh water on this planet, suddenly our supply doesn’t seem nearly so endless. It is true that more than 70% of Earth’s crust is covered in water, but it has been found that ... ... middle of paper ... ...rces Authority: Deferring Capital needs Through Conservation” Denver: American Water Works Association.
Mitigation of Impervious Surface Hydrology Using Bioretention in North Carolina and Maryland. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14(4), 407-415. Stander E. K. and Borst M. (2009). Hydraulic test of a bioretention media carbon amendment.Journal of Hydrologic Engineering,15(6), 531-536.
33. Yang, S.-S., Guo, W.-Q., Zhou, X.-J., Meng, Z.-H., Liu, B., Ren, N.-Q., 2011. Optimization of operating parameters for sludge process reduction under alternating aerobic/oxygen-limited conditions by response surface methodology. Bioresour. Technol.