Gladwell references a study from a highly regarded psychologist to establish credibility for his claim that people that are exceptional in their field must work extremely hard to get where they are. He explains that the study showed that once a musicians make it to a top music school, their natural talent is not nearly as important as the amount of work they put into improving themselves. A musician’s success is directly correlated to the amount of time spent practicing. By stating that the researchers “couldn’t find any ‘naturals,’” the author emphasizes point that innate talent cannot lead a person to the success without hard work. The word “any” demonstrates how it was almost impossible to find someone that broke this rule. Therefore, it
In Outliers, Malcolm Gladwell expresses his theory of success through the 10,000 hour rule that is used to associate practice with success and achieving certain goals. He strives to influence the audience of his point of view and assumptions of successful people throughout the history of the world. Gladwell relates to various historical figures and people of well known talent and intelligence. As the author, Malcolm Gladwell believes to be very knowledgeable, influential throughout the novel. Although he provides interesting facts and statistics to his piece, Gladwell is unable to establish credibility to this information. During college and high school, he did not attain high grades that altered his decision to engage in advertising. After being rejected numerous times, he was later accepted to a journalism position. His insufficient experience and skills contributes to his low credibility and reliability. Gladwell aims to persuade or influence the audience of the importance of practice to fulfill success by also trying to teach the reader new skills. He reaches out to society to capture his inspiring discoveries including young adults in particular who are aspiring to grasp their desired dreams. He introduces the 10,000 hour rule as a goal to reach around the age of twenty or higher. Gladwell compares the lives of professional hockey players, Bill Gates, the Beatles, and Mozart to display their achievements in their later lives due to the amount of experience and practice they were able to endure. He claims that with exactly 10,000 hours of practice, expert level will be sustained in any given skill. Although Gladwell expresses his knowledge and theories of success through devices that exemplify logos and repetition of the 10,00...
The popular saying “practice makes perfect” has been used for many years encouraging younger generations to strive for success in whatever area they wish to excel in. Success is something everybody in society strides for but some do not know how it is achieved. However, there are many people throughout history who are known for achieving success in many areas. Malcolm Gladwell, a best selling author and speaker, identifies these people as being outliers. Gladwell identifies the word “outlier” in his story Outliers as “a scientific term to describe things or phenomena that lie outside normal experience.” Although Malcolm Gladwell does not establish credibility for himself in his novel, his targeted audience of a younger inexperienced generation feel the need to be informed by his detailed theories about becoming successful and eventually becoming an outlier. Although the reality of becoming successful can depend on instances one can not control, Gladwell tells his readers there is a great portion they can control through his theory, the 10,000 hour rule. He does this by using well presented logical persuasive appeals and interesting rhetorical devices such as: onomatopeias, exposition, and argumentation.
Herrnstein and Charles Murray because although I disagree with what the authors argue there are evident truths present in this book. The authors argue that there are differences in the intelligence levels of ethnic groups, “Another taboo Gee that intelligence levels differ among ethnic groups. This is already well-known and widely discussed among psychometricians and other scholars” (Herrnstein & Murray 15). This isn’t due to some biological reason, but rather because resources and opportunities are not allocated equally to ethnic groups. However, with ideas like eugenics and other biological superiority mindsets racist policies have been put in place. People who believe that someone is biologically less intelligent will have little motivation to spend resources on them. In fact, to them it seems like a waste of time and money. No one would ever admit that these ideas persist today, but when one examines the discrepancies in the quality of education given to the rich versus to the poor it becomes evident. Especially when the demographic of people who hold most of the wealth are white. However, not all of what Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray say can be discounted. In fact, they point out that measures of intelligence are limited, “Measures of intelligence have reliable statistical relationships with important social phenomena, but they are a limited tool for deciding what to make of any given individual” (Herrnstein & Murray 27). They repeat this many times, while they attempt to clarify their research their data is very outdated and as result the statistics are skewed. Many people have used books like The Bell Curve, Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life to justify their ideas and
The author argues that certain decision leads to vast amount of untapped human potential and limits success to few who are selected unjustly. This example supports “Mathews Effect”. The Gladwell’s example of Bill Gates proves the “10,000 Hour Rule”, He explained that the timing and opportunity played a huge role to become an expert at computer programming. Bill Gates had access to computers decades before computers became mainstream. Such a timing helped him capture the opportunity to master the tool of trade and put him in the perfect position to start Microsoft. The Gladwell’s example of experiment by Lewis Terman, He argues about that a person’s IQ have a limited control over success. He claims that there is a minimal difference in the levels of success attained by those with IQs between 125 and 170. The author adds that IQ cannot efficiently measure person’s creativity. A person who has a high IQ does not mean that it has a high chance of winning a Nobel Prize because other kind of intelligence matter too. With the help of these facts, Gladwell proves that the relationship between IQ and success is
Terman, L. M. (1916). The measurement of intelligence: an explanation of and a complete guide for the use of the Stanford revision and extension of the Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale. Massachusetts: The Riverside Press.
In Malcolm Gladwell’s book Outliers, he defines an outlier as someone who does something out of the ordinary or differently. The author is very credible and has a few awards for writing, “Outliers.” We should listen to Gladwell because some of his information is knowledgeable and can help with everyday life. His purpose is to teach us about the many rules that are being described in the book. The main intended audience would have to be the world and how he displays his values to millions of people. Malcolm Gladwell discusses how someone’s IQ that is in the upper one hundreds is the same as someone’s IQ in the lower one hundreds. Malcolm Gladwell has a lot of credibility and is a reliable source for information. He went to school for a career in advertising and got his degree from the university of Waterloo. The ten thousand hour rule is described as having ten thousand hours of practice, and getting better, at what is being practiced. Outliers are so heard upon in the book and yet there are very few of them today.
When Considering what makes a socially intelligent leader I am reminded of the Trouble Geniuses’ chapter from the “Outlier” written by Malcolm Gladwell, in this chapter meet 2 young men, Chris Lagan who had an IQ of 195, who aced the SAT’s even though he fell asleep in the middle, and was accepted in to Reed College and Robert Oppenhimer who was also brilliant in his own respect and accepted into Harvard. While in college both had struggles, Chris Lagan lost his scholarship after one semester at Reed because his mother forget to fill out financial aid paper work and upon trying again, life showed up for this small town farm boy with little mean and he had to drop out permanently and returned to his small town life; Robert Oppenhimer during his stay at Harvard stole chemicals for the lab and tried to poison his professor, the young man from an affluence home was later acquitted and put on probation at school and would eventually become known as the “Father of the Atom Bomb.” (Gladwell, 2008) So how does arguably the smartest man in the world end up running a small farm in Montana and an attempted murder become a world renown? This is not a story of the rich kid doing better than the poor. Rather, it’s a story about two different kinds of smarts. Our innate analytical abilities and our social
With this in mind, it is important to comprehend the role of an individual's environment while determining the source of intelligence. Gifted programs have incredible inequality, with 8% of white children being considered gifted, on the other hand only 3.6% of black and 4.2% of hispanic students are deemed gifted according to the Department of Education’s report (Guo, 2015). Poorer children are also presented with fewer advantages than their wealthier counterparts, critics will say that gifted programs put more effort into enrolling wealthier children (Guo, 2015). Interestingly, at the age of two, poorer children are likely six months behind on their language development skills (Guo, 2015). Not to mention that children brought up in safe, inspiring environments have a higher average IQ score than neglected children (Le Page, 2017). One stellar example of the role of environment while determining intelligence is the case of Edith Stern. Edith was raised from birth to be intelligent, only listening to classical music as a babe and being spoken to as if she were an adult while still an infant (Cohen, 1977). This process was dubbed by her father “total educational immersion”, as he believed in something akin to a growth mindset (Cohen, 1977). Edith now has an IQ of 200, taught math at a college level by age 15 and holds a PhD, proving that intelligence can be learned (Cohen,
On the ‘nature’ side of the debate is the psychometric approach, considered to be the most dominant in the study of intelligence, which “inspired the most research and attracted the most attention” (Neisser et al. 1996, p. 77). It argues that there is one general (‘g’) factor which accounts for intelligence. In the 1880s, Francis Galton conducted many tests (measuring reaction times to cognitive tasks), (Boundless 2013), in order to scientifically measure intelligence. These tests were linked to the eugenic breeding programme, which aimed to eliminate biologically inferior people from society. Galton believed that as intelligence was inherited, social class or position were significant indicators of intelligence. If an individual was of high social standing, they would be more intelligent than those of a lower position. However he failed to show any consistency across the tests for this hypothesis, weakening his theory that social class correlated with intelligence. Nevertheless, his creation of the intelligence test led many to continue to develop...