Macroeconomic Impact On Business Operations

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In this paper, I will identify the three monetary tools used by the Federal Reserve. In addition, I will explain how these monetary tools influence the money supply and in turn affect macroeconomic factors. Next, I will explain how money is created. Lastly, I will recommend monetary policy combinations that best achieve a balance between economic growth, low inflation, and a reasonable rate of unemployment.

Tools Used by the Federal Reserve to Control the Money Supply

The three monetary tools used by the Federal Reserve to alter the reserves of commercial banks are: Open-market operations, reserve ratio, and the discount rate (McConnell-Brue, 2004, chpt. 15). The most powerful and flexible tool of the Federal Reserve is Open-market operations. Open-market operations occurs when the buying of government bonds from, or the selling of government bonds to, commercial banks and the general public (McConnell-Brue, 2004, chpt. 15).

The Federal Reserve can also influence the ability for commercial banks to lend by manipulating the reserve ratio. The reserve ratio is the amount the Federal Reserve is requiring the banks to keep in their reserve. By increasing or decreasing the reserve ratio, this determines if a bank has more or less money to lend (The Federal Reserve, 2007).

In the event that a main bank would have unexpected or immediate needs for additional funds, the Federal Reserve can make short-term loans (McConnell-Brue, 2004, chpt. 15). The discount rate is the rate of interest that the Federal Reserve charges to borrow money (The Federal Reserve, 2007).

Tools Used to Influence the Money Supply and Affect Macroeconomic Factors

When the Federal Reserve buys securities in the open market, commercial banks’ reserves are increased. This results in banks lending out their excess reserves which in turn will increase the supply of money. On the other hand, when the Federal Reserve sells securities in the open market to commercial banks or to the public, bank reserves will be reduced and thus the nation’s money supply will decline (McConnell-Brue, 2004, chpt. 15).

“The Fed can also manipulate the reserve ratio in order to influence the ability of commercial banks to lend” (McConnell-Brue, 2004, chpt. 15). If the Federal Reserve increases the reserve ratio, then this would increase the amount of required reserves a bank must keep on hand (McConnell-Brue, 2004, chpt. 15).
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