At first I had to really determine between two: consensus and conflict but I would say that consensus paradigms describes our criminal justice system, in the United States, the best. Consensus, “expresses what society truly is.” The way it is explained, in regular terms, is that under law everyone has the right to speak and have their own voice in what they believe in and what they feel. Not only does this pertain to the law but coming together as a whole and each being individually equal under the law comes to play, a role in consensus paradigms. Another reason for choosing consensus is because it states, “vote, pay taxes, demand the passage of laws, and reap benefits from the social contract (everyone gives up some measure of their rights and freedom for the benefit of all). I feel that this describes our criminal justice system in the United States because we all have our individual rights of freedom but along with that we also have to give up certain things to be United as one. To describe the “justice” received by Cameron Todd Willingham I would say that pluralist paradigm best describes it. My reasoning for this is because after he was sentenced for execution and time had passed, most people started to really question whether the fire was started accidentally or purposely. Pluralist paradigm states that, “Law arises from multiple interest groups whose power is in flux, always changing.” It also states, “With changing times, people are open to new ideas.” With this case I feel that people were open to the idea that he was wrongly convicted and with that I feel that is where justice was received for him. To lose your kids and then be wrongly accused, I could imagine, would be beyond difficult. Therefore, I think it was right t...
Taking this case would be very interesting. The hardest part of taking this case is defending someone who did kill the victim and has admitted it. Personally, I find it hard to put my heart into something that I do not fully believe. She is a murderer and has confessed, therefore defending her feels morally wrong to some extent. I believe that the circumstances that she went through were horrible, but it does not mean that she should kill to fix them.
In our society, there are many cultures with language and dialect variations, but Standard English is the language of the dominant culture. Therefore, it is necessary for all students to learn to write and speak Standard English effectively. However, for many students of Urban school districts, especially African Americans, writing and speaking effective Standard English can occasionally pose a problem. Many African American students speak a variation of Standard English (Black Vernacular Speech) whose linguistic patterns sometimes conflict with those of Standard English. It is true that African American speech is an essential aspect of their African American culture, so the educational system would be doing African American students a disservice by insisting that they learn Standard English as a primary discourse. It is also a fact however, that in order to be viewed as a successful, functional member of society, Standard English, if learned as a secondary discourse, should be written and spoken as fluently as the primary discourse.
Teachers who work with English Language Learners know that academic language takes longer to achieve proficiency in than does conversational language. On average, ELL students need at least two years to achieve conversational language and, five to nine years to develop academic language proficiency. Many English words ELL students are exposed to in school, they have not yet learned or even heard in their first language, which makes transference of knowledge impossible. The vast differences in the ability to use conversational versus academic language can be a hindrance to these students and have lasting effects on their academics and therefore, their lives.
(Summarization of Cummins’ and Krashen 's Theories and Implications to ELL)
According to Cummins, the first type of communication is Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) and it pertains to the social development of a language which can normally be attained fairly quickly within the first few years of acquiring a new language. The social conversations are usually informal forms of communicating where individuals use this type of communicating when speaking or listening to another individual face to face where the vocabulary content is less difficult.
1) Part 1 – Explain the statement “Every behavior a child does has a healthy impulse/good idea behind it.”
I have never been one of those students that constantly ask “Why am I learning this?” so when I read “The Purpose of a Liberal Arts Education,” I felt pretty solid. I felt like these were things I already knew and experienced. However, I never expected Environmental Studies to be the only class to push me to think on a deeper lever, the only class that has truly made me appreciate a liberal arts education. I realized that everything stated in Harris’s article was true. Because of this liberal arts course, my opinions have grown. I can apply what I have learned into the way I live my life. It helps me to see the bigger picture and combine everything I have learned together. It has grown my wisdom, not only about the environment, but about God and faith. I have been given opportunities to share what I have learned with others and have educated conversations. I have developed an appreciation for the world and the environments in which we live.
The word Language has an array of meaning and purposes for individuals and throughout our society. Language can be described as a collective set of guidelines people mentally recall to enable us to communicate (Clark, as cited by Gee & Hayes, 2011, p. 6). Thus, written or oral language is a method of communication. Gee and Hayes, proceed to suggest that individuals communicate in varied ways (2011, p. 1). For example, the children raised diverse family units would acquire written and oral language skills of their ‘mother tongue’ before developing English as an additional Language (EAL). This is supported by Vygotsky’s principle that children acquire their language skills from the social engagement in their environment (Marsh, 2010, p. 47). Apart from written and spoken Language, other forms of communication
Mastering language is an important milestone in human development. When language is developed, the world opens up and a person is able to communicate their needs and interact in a meaningful way. Psychologist Lev Vygotsky even believes language is the most important tool we have in learning. Our basic learning skills are taught to us through an "informal education system consisting of parents, other grown-ups, peers and even the media" (Sigelman, C. & Rider, E., 2009, pg. 277). Formal education then takes over, teaching the language skills necessary to read, write and problem solve. Both formal and informal education play a large part in development and when one of these is compromised language development can suffer.
The article Successful Strategies for Teaching to Middle Grades for English Language Learners by: Nicole Bolos. Reading the article, I realized we are all reading teachers, we are all literacy teachers despite if we are teaching math, history, and science. We cannot teach without introducing Vocabulary terms of science, math and writing terms. I can reflect going back to my school days as a Kindergarten through high school student that my past teachers would not introduce any vocabulary words to help build the CALP language. I would sit there quiet, without asking any question about the lesson because I did not know the academic language of the lesson or instruction.
In her article “The Use and Misuse of Academic Words in Writing,” (2012), Andrea Marie Cons compares the writing of students who are developing their English language skills to those who are not native speakers but who have reached a level of proficiency such that they are no longer grouped with second-language learners. While it is true that language is something learned over a lifetime, as new words are invented and new meanings are given to old words, Cons focuses on so-called “academic words” which serve as more enduring markers of academic achievement. Cons refers to students with less developed skills as “English learners” (EL) and to students who were formerly ELs as “redesignated fluent English-proficient” (RFEP).
In order to make schematic connections, instruction must be meaningful (in a language students can understand) and relevant (relating to students’ prior knowledge). Meaningful contains native language or sheltered English. Relevant contains culturally and/or experientially familiar. English language development that is integrated with developing knowledge about, for example, American school life and procedures, is usually a more effective way of proceeding than simply focusing on English language (Duff, 2001). The activities, tasks, and problems that students encounter should be accessible to students with a wide range of knowledge and skills. That is, students with diverse backgrounds should be able to understand what is required, make meaningful ...
The role of language in science was taken for granted, however, this chapter by Sutton (1998) addressed this issue by highlighting the influential role of language in science education. Sutton’s focus was mostly on the written aspect of language, however, there are other aspects that are influencing science education and consequently affecting the teaching and learning processes. One of these aspects is the language science is represented with, such that the language science is being represented in textbooks might be different than the students’ or teachers’ mother tongue. This raises challenges for teachers and for students, whereby teachers had to bridge the gap between scientific terminologies and students’ mother tongue. To elaborate, from my experience in practicum, I noticed students struggled to express their thoughts using accurate English and scientific terminologies. For example, once I asked students to describe the life cycle of butterflies based on a figure that I had provided, a
Language is a part of our everyday lives, and we can describe the meaning of language in many ways. As suggested in Gee and Hayes (2011, p.6 ) people can view language as something in our minds or something existing in our world in the form of speech, audio recordings, and writings or we can view language as a way of communicating with a group of people. Language can be used to express our emotions, make sense of our mental and abstract thoughts and assists us in communicating with others around us. Language is of vital importance for children to enable them to succeed in school and everyday life. Everyone uses both oral and written language. Language developed as a common ability amongst human beings with the change
Why and how should we teach social studies? This multi-faceted question is difficult to answer, but my personal reasoning for why we should teach social studies is that learning and knowing the discipline will allow students to have a higher understanding of the world around them and consequently they will be able to continue learning about it with the knowledge gained in the practice of social studies. As to how we should teach social studies, there are many ways. The most supported method is to teach it in a variety of different ways but to try and keep it a more student based lesson (Cantrell, 1972). This variety of methods allows for students who learn differently than others to have lessons based around their learning abilities and most of them are student based lessons therefore it has the students preform the work, which in turn forces and prompts them do the