The discovery of morphine, which occurred in 1803, transformed the medical treatment of pain and chronic diseases (Levinthal, 2005). Morphine, a narcotic or opioid, is widely used in the medical field today and is specifically used therapeutically to treat moderate to severe pain in individuals. The most common routes of administration for morphine are oral and intravenous administration (Angel, Gould, Carey, 1998). Morphine acts by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and thus reduces the perception of pain and emotional responses to pain (Weil and Winifred, 2004). The paper will focus on the therapeutic uses of morphine for individuals.
Ecstasy may give a short-term feeling of euphoria but can result in confusion, depression, paranoia, psychosis, increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and cause long-term damage to brain cells. Some effects are also influenced by thoughts, environment, and people who are with you when you take the drug. Vivid changes in color and form occur. Sometimes the user becomes disoriented loses sense of time, place, and identity or has sensations of knowing and feeling what everything in life (and life itself) is all about. Emotions from the past, present, and future flood the user’s mind.
The user may also vividly recall past experiences (flashbacks) and experience an overwhelming sense of fear, sadness, horror or intense love and joy. The effects last from one hour up to several days. STIMULANTS Stimulants are drugs that stimulate the brain which results in an increase of heart rate, blood pressure, respiration and body temperature. They release chemicals that excite or increase particular activities of the brain. The body reacts differently in accordance to the dosage but the common effects include nervousness, irritability, inability to think or concentrate clearly and unpredictable behaviour.
The federal law can prosecute and arrest the marijuana users in those states. This situation is indefensible. Unlike conventional pain drugs, marijuana is an effective medicine to treat and cure neuropathic pain. The legalization of medical use of marijuana can bring relief to millions of Americans suffering from cancer, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, and other chronic illnesses. Thus, the federal government should enact a law to legalize medical marijuana to treat chronic pain and other illnesses for millions of sick people in the United States.
(1) Institutions nationally have conducted studies on the use of medicinal marijuana on disease stricken patients. The Institute of Medicine published a journal on the use of marijuana and the effects it as a recreational drug and medicinal drug. Because the substance, when used medicinally, is monitored/controlled, the psychological effects on the patient is slightly different, and its effects also vary depending on the type of the disease the patient is suffering from. A complete report done by the National Academy of Sciences details the psychological effects of recreational and medicinal marijuana. In the 20th century, marijuana has been used more for its euphoric effects than as a medicine.
What is DXM and it’s effects on behavior? Dextromethorphan is an antitussive drug commonly found in over the counter cough suppressant medication. It is therapeutically beneficial for the uses stated on the labels of the medication (such as limiting coughing), but in recent years, it has begun to be used in abusive ways. “Abusive” being defined by the amount of dosage and frequency of dosages. A normal dosage amount would be 10-20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight; an excessive amount might be more than 30 milligram per kilogram of body weight but is usually in the hundreds of milligrams per kilogram of body weight.
However, Federal regulators classify Ecstasy as a drug with no accepted medical use. Physical effects also include muscle tension, involuntary teeth clenching, nausea, blurred vision, faintness, and chills or sweating. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure are a special risk for people with circulatory or heart disease. And though users see only the positives of the drug or what they believe is, they need to open their eyes and believe death is definitely a factor. Many of the effects with Ecstasy use are similar to those found with the use of amphetamines and cocaine.
Introduction: This study focused on the drug Carbamazepine (CBZ), a very common antiepileptic agent, which is mainly used for tonic-clonic seizures, facial and tongue pain and even bipolar disorder. Despite the cost effectiveness of CBZ, it also brings forward a few areas of concern. CBZ has been shown to produce various clinical responses within patients and unpredictable adverse events such as fatal allergic reactions and liver failure. This downfall occurs in roughly 30-50% of the patients prescribed CBZ. Many patients also develop resistance to CBZ.
"The transformative powers of the medicine went beyond treating illness to changing personality, it entered into our struggle to understand the self." (Kramer, Peter, D., p. xviii, 1993) Prozac's approval for use for patients under the age of 18 has also been a particular selling point for Eli Lilly. As recently as summer 2004, NPR reported that the Journal of the American Medical Association showed that "Prozac, in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy, is highly effective for treating depression in teens. But the study also showed a small increase in 'harm-related behaviors,' including suicide attempts, among teens on Prozac." (Baron, National Public Radio, 2004, www.npr.org) Other doctors have been more cautious about the behavioral change benefits of Prozac.
One, repercussion of happiness is the delight in doing what is right. When individuals delight in doing what is right they succeed in life. When individuals do this they get a sense of assurence that they did something right. Another outcome, is better health and well-being. Happiness can result in the improvement of the physical, mental, and social aspect of life.