The prostate gland is an egg-sized organ that rings the male urethra. The secretions of the prostate give nutrients to the semen. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in men. (Ernstoff,Heaney,Peschel,1998,pviii) Like all cancers, prostate cancer is an uncontrolled cell production in a particular organ or area of the body.
What is Prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer affects the tissue of the prostate, a gland of the male reproductive system found below the bladder and in front of the rectum. The cancerous cells growing in the prostate do not destroy this gland, but rather form masses of abnormal cells also known as a tumor. Typically, prostate cancer grow to a detectable size over a long period of time and an even longer time to metastasize.
Being diagnosed with cancer has always been taken as a death sentence by a majority of the population. This can partly be contributed by the fact that most people do not understand clearly what cancer is. The way most reporters and some journalist have reviewed information relating to prostate cancer has been hazardous.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia is known as a noncancerous overdevelopment of the prostate; it is also called an enlarged prostate. The abbreviation for benign prostatic hyperplasia is, “BPH.” Another term for benign prostatic hyperplasia is benign prostatic hypertrophy but is most commonly known as benign prostatic hyperplasia.
...rgery) cause many serious complications and even death. As a result, the USPSF recommends against the use of PSA based screening test for men of all ages. However, the PSA based screening test an associated treatments of early-detected prostate cancers should be applied only to men who may benefit from early detection and related treatments. In addition to decrease complications and improved treatment effectiveness, PCa treatments should be performed at high volume centers for better control and follow up. We can only hope that future advances will provide a screening test that can better predict prognosis as well as diagnosis and will provide modes of treatment that result in less morbidity and decreased mortality rates.
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of world-wide cancer-related death in men after lung cancer (WCRF International), and in Australia, it accounts for 30% of all new cancers in men and 13.4% of all cancer deaths in men (Cancer Australia). Currently, Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) is the most commonly used serum biomarker for prostate cancer most routinely used by urologists. However, PSA-based screening has been shown to have high false positives and false negatives with low specificity, and it is not able to distinguish well between cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia or between indolent and aggressive cancers, thus leading to overtreatment, especially unnecessary biopsies (Otero) (Qian). Therefore, there is an urgent need for a new specific biomarker for the early detection of prostate cancer, and effective biomarkers will be able to reduce morality rates and appropriate clinical interventions can be applied.
survival pathways 26. In addition , Cancer cells are affected by ∆Np63 by several mechanisms, one of them is by encouraging the migratory behavior of cancer cells and the other way is by downing the
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition that affects the prostate gland in men. The prostate is a gland found between the bladder (where urine is stored) and the urethra (the tube urine passes through). As men age, the prostate gland slowly grows bigger (or enlarges). As the prostate gets bigger, it may press on the urethra and cause the flow of urine to be slower and less forceful. The word "benign" means the enlargement isn't caused by cancer or infection. The word "hyperplasia" means enlarged.
... () The drug that is being tested is called Diferuloylmethane with 500mg of curcumin. The process of this study’s phase 1 clinical trial was a study done over several months. Curcumin was taken once in the morning with an empty stomach. If there was no toxicity, curcumin was taken for three months. The dosage levels were 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 which correlated to 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000, and 12000 mg/day, respectively. Patients would receive regular follow up appointments which included routine physical examination, weekly hemogram, and biweekly blood electrolytes study. Measurement or evaluation of the indicator lesions was done at least every 4 weeks. Tissue samples would be taken before and after the completion of the 3-month treatment. One of the two patients left developed frank malignancies during the treatment period and thus discontinued the use of curcumin.
LNCaP xenografts mimic many of the features of human prostate tumors making them a valuable model to study the mechanism of progression to CRPCa (12, 18). In order to obtain an overview of these mechanisms LNCaP xenografts were grown orthotopically in intact and castrated mice. The analysis of tumor growth show that castration resistant LNCaP tumors (CR-LNCaP) proliferate at a higher rate than androgen sensitive tumors (HS-LNCaP) at the time of harvest, 60 days after surgical orthotopic implantation (Figure 1A, B). This mimics the situation with human CRPCa, which proliferate at a higher rate than castration naïve localized tumors. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of orthotopically grown tumors show an increased number of Ki67 positive cells confirming an enhanced proliferative rate. Measurements of active caspase 3 by IHC show diminished activity in castration resistant tumors; indicating that both enhanced proliferation and diminished apoptosis contribute to the increased growth rate of tumors in castrated mice (Figure 1C and 1D). Next, we perform a comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteomic profiling using SILAC labeled LNCaP cells as internal, spiked-in controls in all samples analyzed (19) . In order to account for biological variation, 4 individual tumors were analyzed for each experimental group. In parallel, we also performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis (Figure 1E).