Hypertension affects approximately 25% of adults worldwide and 16% of US adults and it is estimated to increase in prevalence by 60% over the next 10 to 15 years (1). Hypertension, or increased systemic blood pressure, is directly correlated with many morbidities, such as coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular disease (CVD), congestive heart failure, and chronic renal dysfunction (reference). Essential hypertension, also known as primary hypertension, accounts for 95% of all known cases of hypertension. It is speculated that primary hypertension has a variety of attributing factors including genotype and other hereditary factors (1). High blood pressure or hypertension is currently the highest preventable risk factor for developing CVD, accounting for nearly 54% of deaths from stroke and 47% of deaths from coronary heart disease worldwide (2). Additionally investing in preventative measures for reducing high blood pressure could reduce direct and indirect medical costs by $156 billion in the US alone (2). Even though the exact interaction between sodium and blood pressure is not completely known, current evidence suggests that sodium plays a direct role in hypertension.
Due to controversial research that was recently published, Cook N. et al. (3) revisited the research on hypertension which has raised concern of adverse health effects due to low sodium, predominantly less than 2300 mg/24hr, on cardiovascular disease. Traditional research demonstrates a positive linear association which elevated blood sodium levels and incidence of myocardial infarction. Cook N. et al. developed two phases of trials named Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) I and II. Researchers collected multiple 24 hour urine samples over th...
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4. Zhang, Z., Cogswell, M. E., Gillespie, C., Fang, J., Loustalot, F., Dai, S., . . . Yang, Q. (2013, Association between usual sodium and potassium intake and blood pressure and hypertension among U.S. adults: NHANES 2005-2010. PloS One, 8
5. Galletti, F., Agabiti-rosei, E., Bernini, G., Boero, R., Desideri, G., Fallo, F., . . . Strazzullo, P. (2014, Excess dietary sodium and inadequate potassium intake by hypertensive patients in italy: Results of the MINISAL-SIIA study program. Journal of Hypertension, 32, 48.
6. Lima, S. T. R. M., Da Silva Nalin De Souza,Bárbara, França, A. K. T., Salgado Filho, N., & Sichieri, R. (2013, Dietary approach to hypertension based on low glycaemic index and principles of DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension): A randomised trial in a primary care service. The British Journal of Nutrition, 110, 1472.