Some says that too much sugar in food may cause the hyperactivity in children, but studies have shown that there is no connection or like between sugar intake and ADHD. Scientists also speculate that ADHD children may have been exposed to poor maternal nutrition, viral infections, or maternal substance abuse in the womb. In early childhood, exposure to lead or other toxins as well as traumatic brain injury or neurological disorders may trigger ADHD-like symptoms (Lerner, 2008, p.401). There a number of causes that scienti... ... middle of paper ... ...3) Works Cited Nagel, Rob (Ed. ), Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Historical View of Imaginary Companions Early research on imaginary companions was deficit focused in nature Some of the earliest research around the beginning of the 1900’s viewed it as a sign of a psychological disorder (Vostrovsky, 1895). A psychoanalytic perspective was taken in around the 1940’s but imaginary companions were then viewed as defense mechanisms for children who had personality defects (Hoff, 2005). Even the well known and respected Dr. Benjamin Spock felt that a child who spent too much time with an imaginary friend raised the question of whether the child was lacking something in their life. (Simpson). Research done by Marjorie Taylor in Imaginary Companions and the Children who Create Them discredits the idea that imaginary companions are created because of a deficit.
It is a term that first came to be as result of Caroline Mills research and most famously it is a term forged by the renown Sigmund Freud when he studied phenomenon in 1905 and again more elaborately in 1910 (Freud 1914). Infantile, or an exchangeable term known as childhood amnesia is characterized by the inability to remember anything that occurred in your life before the ages of 3 or 4. (Freud 1914) (Rovee-Collier 1999) Infantile amnesia does not refer to the disappearance of memories as the term may allude to. Rather it is referring to the scarce amount of memories during infancy that is influenced by both individual experiences and cultural factors (DUJS 2008). Some noteworthy light has been shed on the nature of infantile amnesia since Mills and Freud’s era but many mysteries remain.
Early childhood experiences are crucial in shaping personality and psychological functioning into one’s adulthood years in life. Infants’ brains work and develop rapidly, and many memories are being made during the development process. However, many of the memories infants and children make during the first 4 years tend to be forgotten as they grow older. Sigmund Freud was the first psychologist to describe the phenomenon in which people fail to retrieve episodic memories such as specific events from early childhood as infantile amnesia. Freud (1953) explained infantile amnesia by suggesting that one needs to repress memories from infancy due to their inappropriate and traumatic-sexual content.