In the beginning there was Chaos, the origin of everything. Then out of the void emerged Erebus (darkness). Until the birth of Eros (love) the world existed in darkness and void. Chaos then gave birth to Gaea (Earth), Nyx (night), and Tartarus (underworld). Alone, Gaea shortly gave birth to Uranus, the sky (Karas, 2017: Megas, 2017). Together they created the Titans, Cyclopes, and the Hecatoncheires. After their births, the Titans produced the twelve gods; the foundation of Greek mythology.
The Failure of the Roman Republic was inevitable as it was an unjust system of government and it was left vulnerable after the attempted changes instigated by the Gracchi as the Gracchi exposed the weaknesses in the political structure allowing future politicians to manipulate the system. The changes made by the Gracchi left the Republic in a state of pandemonium as it destroyed political stability as well as creating opportunities for future individuals to rise above and challenge the system.
Traumatic brain injury is classified as a physical brain injury that causes some disturbance in the normal physiological process of the central nervous system. Traumatic brain injuries can be categorized as open or closed. A closed head injury is caused by blunt trauma to the head, and injuries normally result from the brain hitting the skull. An open head injury is usually caused by penetrating trauma in which the skull itself is anatomically altered. A contusion of the brain is defined by bruising of the brain tissue. Bleeding of the brain tissue is called a hematoma or an intracranial hemorrhage according to the size and placement of the bleeding. Brain injuries are formed in three stages. The first stage is called the primary stage when
The brain is an incredibly complex organ, but also vulnerable to damage from outside forces. “Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death, especially in young adults, and a major cause of disability” (Mayer, 2005, p. 483). Accidents can result in forces that jar the skull, causing the brain to strike the skull walls causing bruising or hemorrhaging. In some cases, swelling can lead to herniation in the brain and restricted blood flow that can lead to cognitive impairment. In more severe cases, the result is either a vegetative state or death. Two scales used to measure the severity of TBI are the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), which measures from 3 being comatose to 15 indicating minor trauma based on eye, verbal, and motor responses, and the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), whose last number indicates severity from 1, which indicates minor injury, to 6, indicating certain death. Violence, car accidents, work accidents, and sports injuries are well known causes of TBI.
Langlois, Jean, Wesley Rutland-Brown, Marlena Wald. The Epidemiology and Impact of Traumatic Brain Injury: A Brief Overview. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation. (2006). Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 375–378.
Traumatic brain injury ranges from mild to severe. A mild TBI is when a person loses consciousness. Severe TBI is when a person is unconscious for a long period of time and cause some memory loss about an event. Some individuals who suffer the effects of TBI can get better on their own and may not show any signs after some months has passed, others may have immediately signs, minimize the symptoms thinking that it will disappear in a couple of hours. It is important to seek professional help if symptoms of anxious, easily frustrated, feeling irritated or angered all the time, having trouble concentrating, focusing or remembering. If the symptoms go untreated it makes it worse and it can affect the life and how a pers...
The control center of the human body is none other than the mighty brain. Due to its incredible importance in basic human functioning, both voluntary and involuntary, any injury or trauma to this organ will have a great influence on the body and it's capabilities (Burrus, 2013). Exploring how the brain deals with various injuries and damage proves that the functionality of the brain is fitting to make the brain the power house of the body. But before exploring this with the help of case studies, it is important to first make sense of the the anatomy and functioning of the nervous system as a whole in order to understand how it is affected during injury, the functioning of the body that is lost, the intervention implemented for treatment or rehabilitation and the changes experienced.
This scale assigns numbers to responses indicating communication and display of responsiveness, the overall score allows classification of the severity of brain injury for triage and for epidemiological studies. It uses unambiguous terms that are readily understood by a wide range of observers. The GCS also facilitates monitoring in the early stages after injury, allowing for rapid detection of complications and decline. Even among mild injuries (GCS 13- 15) the scale can discriminate between those more or less likely to have detectable brain damage and to be at risk of complications (Jannett, 2002, p. 91). Upon arrival to the hospital, the patient was obtunded, eye opening to verbal commands (+3), and incoherently (+3) responded to painful stimuli (+5), giving her a GCS of 8. Minor abrasions were noted to the face, hands, and wrist. After entering the trauma bay, the patient was transferred onto the stretcher and immediately attached to monitoring equipment. Vital signs revealed mild hypotension (112/76) and sinus bradycardia (HR= 47 bpm). Pupils were 2 mm with symmetry with sluggish light reactivity. Her head was normocephalic and a single 1 mm cut was noted to the left temple, dried blood was also noted to the area. Ecchymosis was evident to the bridge of the nose, and redness from abrasions to the hands, bilateral upper extremities and chest were documented with no
The consequences for sustaining brain injury of any magnitude can have a life changing effect on the individual and the family. Whether the person is an adult or a child their life changes drastically. There are various types of brain injuries; the one that is in detail in this paper is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) of any degree. The obstacles a person has to overcome to become rehabilitated are numerous, tedious, and frustrating. The expenses that a person or family have to pay for rehabilitation are tremendous, and many cannot afford the treatments.
Brain injuries can be classified into mild, moderate, and severe categories. The most commonly used assessment for classifying TBI severity is by using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). This scale assesses individual’s level of consciousness based on verbal, motor, and eye responses to stimuli. Researchers Kung et al (2010) analyzed the components of Glasgow coma scale (GCS) from 27,625 TBI cases in Taiwan. The correlation between the survival rate and certain eye (E), motor (M) and verbal (V) score combinations for GCS (scores of 6, 11, 12, &13) were found to be statistically significant. The findings indicate that the three fundamental elements comprising the Glasgow coma scale (E, M, & V) separately and in some combinations are predictive of the survival of TBI patients. The researchers assert that this observation is clinically useful when a complete GCS score cannot be obtained when evaluating TBI patients.
A head injury is any trauma to the scalp, skull, or brain. The injury may be only a small bump on the skull or a serious brain injury. There are two main types of TBI: open head injuries and closed head injuries. Open head injury is penetration of the skull with direct injury to the head, which means being hit with an object that broke the skull and entered the brain. This is more likely to happen when you move at high speed, such as going through the windshield during a car accident. It can also happen from a gunshot wound to the head. A closed head injury means you received a hard blow to the head from striking an object, although the object did not break the skull, it caused the brain to move forward and back or from side to side and
“Mild Brain Injury and Concussion.” Brain Injury Association of America. ReMed, n.d. Web. 10 November 2013.
In 44 B.C., Julius Caesar was assassinated in the chamber of the Roman Senate. With his death,a glorious chapter of the Roman empire’s history--a history created by Caesar himself-- ended. Fifty-eight years earlier, Julius Caesar began a purposeful journey designed to place him in a position of ultimate power. Caesar was successful because he had a clear goal of what Rome could be, obstinate in his belief , and applied his insight into the political realm. Ironically, these same traits that contributed to his success would eventually lead to his downfall.
During the last century of the Roman republic, the system of government was drastically changed and eventually fell apart, not only because of Marius and his military reforms, but also because of the dictatorship and proscriptions of Sulla, seven consulships of Marius, political alliances of the first and second triumvirates and the growing corruption and ineptitude of the senate.
Dissociative amnesia is a dissociative disorder characterized by sudden, selective memory loss. It will affect 2% of the population some time in their life. When dealing with this disorder it is very important to be aware of the symptoms, long term and short term effects, treatment options, and current research of it.