Literature Review for Plantar Heel Pain and Cupping

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Plantar heel pain is a commonly seen condition by healthcare providers (Crawford et al., 2001, Hossain and Makwana, 2011, Radford et al., 2007, Renan-Ordine et al., 2011, Saban et al., 2013). 10 % of the adult general population experience plantar heel pain during their life. About 2 million American athletes and non-athletes are affected annually (Riddle et al., 2003). 15% of adult foot complaints seek professional care for plantar heel pain(Irving et al., 2006). Although it is a common condition, its etiology is poorly understood and remains controversial (Crawford et al., 2001, Irving et al., 2006, Rome et al., 2001). Various studies discussed the real cause of plantar heel pain. Many studies suggested risk factors for the development of plantar heel pain classifying them to intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic risk factors are related to anatomical (ROM of the ankle and subtalar joints) and biological characteristics of the individual (age, gender, weight and height). Extrinsic risk factors are mainly related to the environment for athletic activity (Irving et al., 2006, Rome et al., 2001). Plantar heel pain is usually characterized by sharp pain on the medial border of the heel in the morning, weight bearing after a prolonged period of non-weight bearing and at the beginning of athletic activity that involve weight-bearing such as walking or running(Goff and Crawford, 2011, Irving et al., 2006, Renan-Ordine et al., 2011). Usually the pain decrease with walking activity or running but tend to worsen by the end of the day especially if the subject had a prolonged period of standing or walking throughout the day(Goff and Crawford, 2011, Renan-Ordine et al., 2011). It seriously affects the level of function for daily... ... middle of paper ... in combination with neural mobilization exercises as a treatment for heel pain: A pilot randomized clinical trial. Man Ther. SIMONS DG, T. J., SIMONS LS. 1999. Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual; THE UPPER HALF OF THE BODY, Baltimore, Maryland 21201-2436 USA, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. STUX, G., BERMAN, B. & POMERANZ, B. 2003. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. TEUT, M., KAISER, S., ORTIZ, M., ROLL, S., BINTING, S., WILLICH, S. N. & BRINKHAUS, B. 2012. Pulsatile dry cupping in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee - a randomized controlled exploratory trial. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 12, 184. THAM, L. M., LEE, H. P. & LU, C. 2006. Cupping: From a biomechanical perspective. Journal of Biomechanics, 39, 2183-2193. YOO, S. S. & TAUSK, F. 2004. Cupping: East meets West. International journal of dermatology, 43, 664-665.
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