Literature Review: Underrepresentation Of Asian-American Police Officers

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Introduction
In chapter one, a complete empirical argument was outlined regarding how Asian-American communities viewed law enforcement, and the various types of barriers that has created challenges to recruit Asian-American applicants. Chapter two will provide justification and identify the most relevant and significant literature that is associated with the problems addressed in this thesis. The problems to be addressed in chapter two pertains to the following: (1) underrepresentation of Asian-American police officers; (2) recruiting Asian-Americans into law enforcement; and (3) methods to dispel cultural barriers to develop a diverse police force.
The literature review is organized by themes that will provide the reader with a comprehensive
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The lack of trust and confidence between Asian immigrants and law enforcement is one of several reasons why U.S police department struggle to recruit qualified Asian-American officers. Southeast Asian countries such as Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Singapore, and Vietnam has deep cultural roots in Confucianism. Its political philosophy system has affected the aforementioned Southeast Asian countries by ways of corruption and nepotism (Warner, 2013). The exchanging of favors in the form of money is part of the Confucian value, and it is currently practiced in modern day Southeast Asian countries. The practice of handing cash-filled envelopes to law enforcement officers for protection, or to avoid being harassed or arrested for minor traffic violations, is on the same narrow spectrum with corruption (Zhao & Park, 2013). In terms of governmental authority over the affairs and actions of society, Confucianism has led many police organizations in Southeast Asia towards corruption and police abuse of powers (Warner, 2013). Police corruption was so widely practiced in Southeast Asian countries that it has become a norm of society (Wong,…show more content…
Asian police officers is shown to have the least full-time sworn officers among Whites, Hispanics, and Black officers (Governing Data, 2015). Police departments across the nation struggles to recruit qualified Asian-American officers to reflect the demographics of Asians in most cities in the United States. Recruiting prospective Asian-American candidates are very challenging and police departments cannot hire just about anybody simply to fulfill and achieve diversity. Implicit biases, racial disparity, cultural and language barriers, stereotypes, racial discrimination, and strict police recruitment standardizations, were all contributing factors as to why police departments across the country struggles with recruiting Asian-American officers (Matthies et al., 2012). For instance, standardized height requirements have disqualified many prospective Asian-American candidates from applying for the San Francisco Police Department (Matthies et al., 2012). The San Francisco Police Department requires their officers to be at least 5 feet 8 inches tall, and that had a disproportional impact on Asian-Americans (Zhao et al.,

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