Literature Review On Performance Appraisal

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2.0 Introduction
Literature available indicates that a lot of researches have been conducted on performance appraisal. However, for this study, this literature review is focused on performance management, performance appraisal in general, the history of performance appraisal, consequences of appraisal, design of appraisal system, effective appraisal system, training of appraisers, appraisal feedback and motivation.
2.1 Performance management
Maximizing performance is a priority for most organizations today, (Mathis et al, 2004). Every employer desires that his employee does his or her job well and this can be achieved through managing performance.
According to Aguinis (2007), performance management is a continuous process of setting goals and
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2.2 Performance appraisal
It is always important for managers and supervisors to get the best performance from their workforce in terms of levels of production and quality of output (Foot and Hook, 2005). In order to achieve this, certain systems or programmes such as performance appraisal need to be put in place.
The success or failure of performance appraisal programmes depends on the philosophy underlying it, its connection with business goal, and the attributes and skills of those responsible for its administration. According to Dessler (2005), performance appraisal means evaluating employees ' current and or past performance relative to his or her performance standards. That is employees will be assessed after a given period of time what they have been able to achieve by a target set. This will also help supervisors to know how well their subordinates are performing on their jobs.
Hodgetts and Kroeck (1992), hold the view that performance appraisal is the systematic observation, evaluation and description of work-related behavior. By this, an employee is observed from time to time by critically considering what knowledge, ability and skills he uses to accomplish
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McBeath et al (1976), in discussing salary administration, commented that equitable salary surveys of competitive levels, employee appraisal and effective salary planning. For them, appraisal is part and parcel of an important personnel activity salary planning and administration. They are keen to accept, however, that, it is clearly essential to make some attempt at measurement of performance if the appraisal is to be taken seriously as a factor which will influence salaries.
Performance appraisal by nature requires that there is the need for goal setting and expectation of results. Goal setting theory claims that people work better when they have clear realizable and significant goals and argues that people will put more E’s (energy, effort, enthusiasm, excitement and so on) onto their work if they believe their effort will result in tangible achievements that will help them fulfill personal needs, Marbey and Salaman (1995).
Performance appraisal systems can provide organizations with valuable information to assist in the development of organizational strategies and planning. The information gained from this
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