Literature Review

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3.0 ENZYMES The capable of filamentous fungi to grow on wide range of substrate and efficiently degrade polysaccharides and protein into monomers make them an attractive resource for new enzymes (Seiboth, et al., 2011). These particular enzymes are of considerable great commercial importance. The industrial enzyme market hit $2.3 million annually with 34% applications in detergents, 27% in foods, 16% in agriculture and feeds, 10% in textiles and 10% in leather, chemicals, and pulp (Demain, 2007). Despite of industrial use of fungal enzymes, there are medical uses of fungal enzymes. Protease, keratinase, amylase, and lipase can be produced by different fungal strain of Aspergillus, Candida, Penicillum, Rhizopus, and Mucor (Nigam, 2013; McKelvey & Murphy, 2011).Enzyme can be used as drug, yet it has unique advantage over drug. Enzymes are able to act on target with greater affinity and specificity (Kaur & Sekhon, 2012; Vellard, 2003; Holcenberg, 1977). Protease aid in digestion of protein and can be derived from microorganisms. Microbial protease are of acidic, neutral and alkaline (Nigam, 2013). Properties of fungal proteases are high diversity, broad substrate specificity, and high stability under extreme conditions (Jisha, et al., 2013). Often use fungi in protease production are Aspergillus niger (Barthomeuf, et al., 1992) and A. oryzae (Nakadai, et al., 1973) and A.melleus (Luisetti, et al., 1991). Oral administration of A. oryzae protease can be used in capsules, chewables, liquid, powder, strips or tablets to aid digestion and correct lytic enzyme deficiency syndrome (Metha, 2010). Besides, this enzyme has been prove to have anti-inflammatory effect and is useful in treatment of various disease and conditions. This method of ... ... middle of paper ... ...003). The enzyme as drug: application of enzymes as pharmaceuticals. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 14, 444-450. Walker, G. M., & White, N. A. (2011). Introduction to fungal physiology. In K. Kavanagh (Ed.), Fungi: Biology and Applications (2nd ed., pp. 1-34). John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Watanakunakorn, C., & Glotzbecker, C. (1977). Synergism with aminoglycosides of penicillin, ampicillin and vancomycin against non-enterococcal group-D streptococci and viridans streptococci. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 10(1), 133-138. Weaver, R. J., & McCune, S. B. (1958). Gibberellin tested on grapes. California Agriculture, 6-15. Weisse , A. B. (1991). The long pause. The discovery and rediscovery of penicillin. Hospital Practice (Office Edition), 26, 93-96, 101-104, 107. Zhou, Z.-Y., & Liu, J.-K. (2010). Pigments of fungi (macromycetes). Natural Product Reports, 27, 1531-1570.
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