Literature Review

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Some scholars investigated the role of field dependent and field independent individuals on listening, speaking, reading and writing skills. Hwang (1997), for example, found a significant positive correlation between listening comprehension and field independence. Naiman et al. (1978, as cited in Hansen & Stansfield, 1981), reported that field independence positively correlated with listening comprehension tasks at the advanced stages of French study. As cited in Bialystok (1992, p. 662), Genesee and Hamayan (1980) found that field independence cognitive style was correlated with written language proficiency and listening comprehension but not with oral production for younger children. By contrast, Bialystok and Fröhlich (1978) concluded that field independence was not strongly predictive of success on the second language reading, listening, and writing tasks. Jucker et al. (1976, as cited in Hansen and Stansfield, 1981) found no significant correlation between field independence cognitive style and listening comprehension for younger students. Furthermore, Elliot (1995a, 1995b) fou...
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