The Modern-Post Modern style of writing and poetry became popular in the mid to late 19th Century. Some well known poets and writers such as Thomas Hardy, Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens, and many more were credited with beginning this style of poetry and writing. Some of their tendencies of these writers were mainly their reactions and thoughts against the Victorian Era. There were also poets like W.B. Yeats and Rainer Maria Rilke who started their poetic careers in the Post-Romantic era but adapted into the Modern-Post Modern era.
Unfortunately for contemporary poetry, there is a point at which new innovations become difficult and it is rather new adaptations of familiar formulas that become avant-garde. This very regression, the loss of the avant-garde movement can be seen in the poetry of Tao Lin. The re-emergence of lyric in poetry was the death of a poetic revolution. When language poetry broke on to the poetry scene in the late 1970’s it was introduced by a small group of poets who “shared a passionate devotion to the more avant-garde side of American poetry- to the experimental” (Epstein, 46). This poetry was not intended for the general audience, it was poetry intended as an “art for the happy few” (Epstein, 15) who were willing to engage in conversation with the literature they read.
Modernist writers adopted the stream of consciousness; a literary technique used to describe the workings of the mind, and the ways in which thoughts and feelings combined to create a subjective reality. The brother of William James coined the term, and the technique was improved by Katherine Mansfield, but brought to perfection by Joyce. The most dominant Modernist movement in poetry was imagism and found new inspiration in the writings of Sappho, Catullus and Villon. Everything that was not written in that manner was intolerable. The imagists insisted on direct treatment of the subject and omitted every word that was unnecessary decorum.
Since Modernistic outlooks on society tended to be realistic, the view of culture was very pessimistic in comparison to the more positive nineteenth-century view (“Modernism and the Modern Novel”). This change insinuated many new values that were once ignored. Experimentation and individualism became respected and desirable, while before these were considered improper (“Modernism”- Literature Periods and Movements). Many writers from this era, called Modernists, were experimenting with their writing by coming up with new ways to explain their thoughts, which made them different from preexisting authors. Dylan Thomas is an example of a Modernist who clearly shows Modernistic characteristics in his work by breaking away from traditional Victorian era proprieties.
Modernism in T.S. Eliot's "The Wasteland" Modernism has been defined as a rejection of traditional 19th-century norms, whereby artists, architects, poets and thinkers either altered or abandoned earlier conventions in an attempt to re-envision a society in flux. In literature this included a progression from objectivist optimism to cynical relativism expressed through fragmented free verse containing complex, and often contradictory, allusions, multiple points of view and other poetic devices that broke from the forms in Victorian and Romantic writing, as can be seen in T.S. Eliot's "The Waste Land" (Levanson). The varied perspectives or lack of a central, continuous speaker uproots "The Waste Land" from previous forms of poetry; however, it is not simply for the sake of being avant-garde, but to espouse the modernist philosophy, which posits the absence of an Absolute and requires the interpretation of juxtaposed, irreconcilable points of view in order to find meaning.
The Battle between the Grand Tradition and the Avant-garde By 1914, tradition was already broken in literature and virtually everything was taking the trend of modernism. Almost everything was being focused on being modern. This is from cubism, futurism, expressionism, and pure abstraction in painting, abandonment of tonality in music and functionalism, and flight from ornament in architecture (The Arts p. 179). In 1914, modernity was already famous and many people who would b... ... middle of paper ... ...s. He had unique ideas and was not afraid to use them even during the oppressive times. Placing his works in the line of traditional to modern, his works lie close to modernity than to traditional.
Emily Dickinson and Adrienne Rich The modernist period, stretching from the late 19th century to approximately 1960, is a very distinct phase in the progression of American literature, employing the use of novel literary techniques which stray away from the traditional literary styles observed in the time preceding the period. Modernist writers explore new styles themes, and content in their compositions, encompassing issues ranging from race (Kate Chopin) to gender (H.D.) to sexuality (James Baldwin), as well as many others. The Modernist movement, however novel and unique, did not develop spontaneously. A few writers leading up to the movement exhibit obvious modernist views in their writing.
The Waste Land was first published in 1922 in The Criterion to a mixed reception. The work forced and challenged the reader to engage in classical literary works (i.e. Greek mythology, Shakespeare, Dante’s Inferno) as well as multiple languages to be able to decipher and conceptualize the ideas that Eliot was trying to express. However, by drawing upon classical literary works and alternative languages, it could be argued the themes used placed the poem among the educated elite of society and excluded the under-educated working class, using language as a method to exclude certain groups. In spite of that, Eliot’s innovative approach to form and theme within the historical period of modernity (as defined above), led to The Waste Land being recognized as a key piece of modernist literature.
Thus in romantic Literature the code was imagination over reason, emotion over logic, and finally intuition over science. All of these new ways discouraged and didn’t tolerate the more classic way of literature. Other significant writers of the Romantic Age are noted still as shaping an age of open-mindedness and freedom. Lord Byron was one of these authors, he wrote “Don Juan';. Another is Percy Bysshe Shelley wrote in terza rima, a three line iambic pentameter set up of bcb, cdc, ded, and so on.
If Gulliver had left a description of a pile of soil instead of his urination procedure, the reader would perhaps view his work as boring, but not as comedic or repulsive. The tales would have lost their derogatory tone, their satirical edge, and their comedic nature had Swift not used such images. Such images and language are a unique element of satirical writing. Satirist wanted to attack the vices of the community and impress an image on their readers. They, however, could not accomplish this through bland social commentary.