Life Expectancy on the Rise

Powerful Essays
Introduction The measurement of life expectancy can be measured by mortality and morbidity (Molla). Mortality is the inclusion of death rates, and morbidity is included in life expectancy when studies focus more on the life of the individual rather than death. The inclusion of morbidity in life expectancy is called healthy life expectancy, and the measurement used when measuring healthy life expectancy is wellbeing, based on surveys (Perenboom). When focusing on healthy life expectancy, as opposed to total life expectancy, the years of life are divided into two or three groups based on the number of healthy years and not-healthy years (Wood). Around the world, there are 49 counties that measure life expectancy (Molla). These countries can be divided into two groups: those with high mortality and those with low. Life expectancy in each cluster of countries increases at about the same rate and that rate has been increasing for decades (Bloom). Life Expectancy is Increasing In the year 1800, overall life expectancy was about 30 years (Bloom). In 1850, life expectancy increased to 41 years (Goldstein). Later, total life expectancy rose to 52.3 years in 1963 (Bloom). Sixteen year old males and females in 1998 had total life expectancies of 59.9 and 65.1 years (Perenboom). In 2001, total life expectancy was 78.9 years for females and 73.5 years for males. Of those years, 70.3% and 58.6% were spent in good health, respectively (Wood). The increase in total life expectancy is global. Countries with a total life expectancy of less than 40 saw an increase of ten years in the period between 1963 and 2003. During the same time period, countries with mid-ranged life expectancy [around 5 years] saw an additional 20 years added to their lives... ... middle of paper ... ...012. Web. . Vinas, Michael S. "Chronology of Medical/Technological Advances." Perfusion Line. 8 Aug. 1999. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. . Winkleby, Marilyn M., Darius E. Jatulis, Erica Frank, and Stephen P. Fortmann. "Socioeconomic Status and Health: How Education, Income, and Occupation Contribute to Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease." American Journal of Public Health 82.6 (1992): 816-20. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. . Wood, Rachael, Matt Sutton, David Clark, Amy McKeon, and Marion Bain. "Measuring Inequalities in Health: The Case for Healthy Life Expectancy." Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 60.12 (2006): 1089-092. JSTOR. BMJ Publishing Group. Web. 6 Feb. 2012. .