Nature Climate Change, 1 (2), pp. 105--109. Sims, R. E., Mabee, W., Saddler, J. N. and Taylor, M. 2010. An overview of second generation biofuel technologies. Bioresource technology, 101 (6), pp.
Retrieved from http://www.biodiesel.pl/uploads/media/A_Look_Back_at_the_U.S._Department_of_Ener gy_s_Aquatic_Species_Program_Biodiesel_from_Algae_July_1998.pdf Vasudevan P., & Briggs, M. (2008). Biodiesel production – current state of the art and challenges. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. 35, 5:421-430. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/6837rr026w91gg77/ Walker, D. (2009).
The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an upsurging technology in the field of bio-energy generation along with wastewater treatment. The microbial fuel cell generates energy with the help of microbes that makes it green future source of energy. In MFC, anaerobic microbes degrade organic matter and produce hydrogen ions (H+) and electrons (e-) at the anode. H+ ion diffuses through the proton exchange membrane (PEM); and e- are transported through an electrode via an external circuit to the cathode. At a cathode, e- and H+ ions combine with oxygen to form water (H2O), this results in power generation .
Fossil fuels are a limited resource and at this rate of consumption the supply may be completely depleted in a few decades time. Clearly, a solution to this ravaging dilemma is needed and biofuels seem to be the answer. Biofuels are fuels that are extracted from organic matter, particularly plants. The main goal of biofuel technology is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This is achieved through the utilization of photosynthesis.
Algae: Bio Fuel of the Future Bio Fuels are clearly the most suitable alternative energy of the future as oil and coal are both rapidly vanishing and increasingly out of interest for nations wishing to avoid terrorist nations. Recently, algae has been discovered as an extremely suitable bio fuel because of its surprisingly high ratio of yield to area required for growth. In 1960 Oswald and Golweke proposed the use of large‐scale ponds for cultivating algae on wastewater nutrients and anaerobically fermenting the biomass into methane fuel. Algae, like all bio fuels, harvests the energy from water and sunlight to produce oil which can be converted into biodiesel as well as the carbohydrate content to be fermented into ethanol (Benemann, Olst, et al. 1).
2005. Vol. 57B, #3, 269-271. Sarmiento, J.L., Slater, R.D., & Gnanadesikan, A. “Effects of patchy ocean fertilization on atmospheric carbon dioxide and biological production.” Global Geobiochemical Cycles.
Burning fossil fuels is a major contributor to the high emission level. The ecosystem is unable to use or remove the extent of our carbon dioxide emissions resulting in the addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, causing the greenhouse gases to trap more heat from the sun, rising Earth’s temperature. The greenhouse gas effect, a natural process, becomes abused when pollution amplifies and complicates weather, and threatens society, animals, and ecosystems. One solution to making even a dent on carbon dioxide emissions is finding alternative forms of creating energy. An emerging alternative to fossil fuels is biodiesel.
Biochem. Biotechnol. 1992, 34/35, 23–35. Koo BW, Min BC, Gwak KS (2012) Structural changes in lignin during organosolv pretreatment of Liriodendron tulipifera and the effect on enzymatic hydrolysis, Biomass Bioenergy, vol. 42, pp.
 Robles-Medina, P. González-Moreno, L. Esteban-Cerdán, and E. Molina-Grima, “Biocatalysis: towards ever greener biodiesel production.,” Biotechnol. Adv., vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 398–408, 2009.