Political Liberalism Norman Davies describes liberalism as "being developed along two parallel tracks, the political and the economic. Political liberalism focused on the essential concept of government by consent. In its most thoroughgoing form it embraced republicanism, though most liberals favored a popular, limited, and fair-minded monarch as a factor encouraging stability." (A History of Europe, p.802) At the core of liberalism was the idea of freedom of thought and expression. People were now not only able to think for themselves, but also express those same thoughts.
Progressivism implies a philosophy which welcomes innovations and reforms in the political, economic, and social order. The Progressive movement, 1901 to 1917, was ultimately the triumph of conservatism rather than a victory for liberalism. In a general sense, the conservative goals of this period justified the Liberal reforms enacted by Progressive leaders. Deviating from the “traditional” definition of conservatism (a resistance to change and a disposition of hostility to innovations in the political, social, and economic order), the Conservatist triumph was in the sense that there was an effort to maintain basic social and economic relations vital to a capitalist society. The Progressive leaders essentially wanted to perpetuate Liberal reform in order to bring upon general conservatism.
Naturally, there are different variants of liberalism that may argue on the extent the government is allowed to interfere; classical liberalism strongly believes in the minimalism of the state while modern liberalism recognises the state as an active participant in the economy (Schapper, 2018). However more broadly, liberalism is essentially about ensuring and trusting that the government will respect the people’s individual freedom while there are perhaps more radical variants such as the one of libertarianism which is about considering individual freedom as a given due to as little government involvement as possible (Johnson,
Classical liberal ideas often form the basis for opposition to the use of government to attain social objectives. They stress instead reliance on private initiatives or the free market to determine the best outcomes. Liberals believe in the government action the allows equal opportunities and equality for all. Liberals have a more fact-based, rather than faith-based, ideology. They are not so motivated by self-serving but actually negative emotions, such as prejudice, greed and fear, and thus can see the great advantages to a society of justice for all The basic duty of the government is to protect the common good and private rights of individuals.
A citizen in a liberal democracy can always appeal to his or her liberty rights in order to stop the government from promoting social equality. From a theoretical point of view, a liberal state cannot impose an income tax on the individuals, because the simple fact that some citizens are earning more money is not a direct cause of harm to the others. According to Karl Marx, this is the main problem of liberalism: it legalized inequality, and to some extends also competition. Marx criticizes Mill’s harm principle, by saying that, defining freedom as the right to do whatever we want, as long as we do not harm the others means that people need a state to regulate their actions, or they will eventually do something harmful to the others; this definition presupposes that people are selfish and evil. For Marx, this definition of liberty is too individualistic, and thus it generates a society where people are egoistic and do not trust each
Instead, the United States relies on economic pressure and incentives to achieve its policy aims. Origin of liberalism The word liberal is derived from the Latin word liber which means free man. Liberalism is also a derivative of liber. The central idea of all these words is freedom or liberty. Liberal also denotes generosity or open-mindedness.
Mark Levin centers his research and ideas based on the influence of philosophers, among these, Adam Smith and John Locke to name a few. The Conservative idea is based on the right of human beings, the right to live freely, and God’s given natural rights. Levin explains what modern liberals want and their purpose in government, he calls these liberals “Statists” as to not confuse the term “Liberal”; a term that has been used in different ways throughout the years. He explains how these “Statists” worship government and desire to expand its power for their own benefit, not for the society as a whole. Levin explains how these modern liberals use the power of the state to force change, resulting in a soft tyranny.
Patterson (2008) wrote that conservatives believe that government need to be economical in its systems (less government), but use its ability to maintain the traditions of the union. Conservatism tends to be critical of proposals for profound social change. Some Conservatives tend to seek reform of society slowly over time. This ideology tends to seek organic changes to society versus a revolutionary approach. According to Shively (2014) believe that a society must consist of structure and order (p. 31).
In understanding both ideologies, it is imperative to have an understanding of classical liberalism. Classical liberalism was built on ideas from the seventeenth ... ... middle of paper ... ...ould harm it, while conservatives tend to oppose things such as the Clean Air Act for monetary reasons. Conservatives tend to support smaller government while liberals tend to want a larger government. Even though there are many differences between the two ideologies they both derived from classical liberalism. Some individuals refer to classical liberalism as the “best of both worlds” ideology.
Friedman, in his book Capitalism and Freedom presents an argument from the individualist conservative in which overall economic freedom to society gives the best chance at equal oppurtunity for the individual. Krugman, through his belief in welfare liberalism, states in his book The Conscience of the Liberal that strong government intervention in the economic lives of society provides the greatest freedom for the individual. Both, through contrasting viewpoints, attempts to provide the best system of creating freedom in the individual's life in order to better themselves amongst society. While looking at both Krugman's and Friedman's arguments, ***** by Terence Ball and Richard Dagger will provide a the backdrop in what the basic principles of a liberalist are, and what points Krugman and Friedman use to strengthen their arguments. While disecting both pollitical theorists, Krugman ends up with the better model of liberal society than Friedman in that social welfare has a higher degree of historical success than Friedman's.