Liberal Democracy Essay

786 Words4 Pages
From Greek polis to French absolutism to Italian fascism, political system has varied across both spatial domain and temporal range. The dynamism with which the zeitgeist sways from one political system to other raises an essential question: Is there a final form of government? The dynamism, which has propagated other forms of governance in the past, now seems to favour liberal democracy, and many have posited the argument that liberal democracy is the final form of government. However, to establish such a case, three conditions need to be met. This essay will discuss what the three conditions are, how the three conditions are not met, or in cases they are met, the reasons for their insufficiency for the end of history with liberal democracy, and other shortcomings within the current political framework that suggest otherwise. First condition is that liberal democracy is the best form of government. This is because I interpret political system as being analogous to consumer goods where consumers (citizens for forms of government) are gravitated towards the best product. It has to be best on two levels of analysis: by being compatible with human nature, and with the current social zeitgeist. Regarding human nature, the liberals posits that humans tend to prioritize the idea of individuals over communities, and that the human nature is not malleable. However, given that no empirical evidence systematically and rigorously supports such a claim, and there are plethora of other claims, like those of conservatives’ and Marxists’, and equally valid empirical evidence (as those that support the liberal’s) support the non-congruent claims, it is difficult to determine whether human nature is compatible with liberal democracy. Furthermore,... ... middle of paper ... ...d of liberal democracy, e.g. Islamic fundamentalism). For example, radical Islamism in Iran initially spearheaded by Ayatollah Khoemeni Even if such radical Islamism may fade, it is hard to envision other moderate Islamic countries forgoing their religious ideals and giving up Sharia law The second argument is that although all countries may appear to be de jure liberal democracies, and thus putting history to an end, they may in fact be de facto authoritarian regimes or illiberal democracies. For example, rise of one-party system as is viewed by Russia and For example, Although the trend towards liberal democracy after 1816 Westphalia Treaty is rather clear and supported by empirical evidence – as shown by democratic indices such as Freedom House and Polity IV – the argument that liberal democracy is the final form of human government seems rather contentious.
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