Throughout history, African Americans have encountered an overwhelming amount of obstacles for justice and equality. You can see instances of these obstacles especially during the 1800’s where there were various forms of segregation and racism such as the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan terrorism, Jim- Crow laws, voting restrictions. These negative forces asserted by societal racism were present both pre and post slavery. Although blacks were often seen as being a core foundation for the creation of society and what it is today, they never were given credit for their work although forced. This was due to the various laws and social morals that were sustained for over 100 years throughout the United States.
<http://www.unc.edu/course/eng81br1/harlem.html.> Haskins, Jim. The Harlem Renaissance. Brookfield, CT: The Millbrook Press, 1996. Hornsby, Jr., Alton. “Black Americans.” The World Book Encyclopedia.
Journey to the Promised Land : The African American Struggle for Development since the Civil War. Westport, CT, USA:: Greenwood Press,. Gossett, T. S. (1997). The History of an Idea in America. Cary, NC, USA: Oxford University Press.
<http://www.ed.gov/about/inits/list/whhbcu/edlite-index.html> Wenglinsky, H.H. “Educational Justification of Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Policy Response to the U.S. Supreme Court.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 18.1 (1996): 91-013.
This definition ma... ... middle of paper ... ...ace, culture, identity, community and power in the American society. Works Cited 1. Fields, Barbara, J “Ideology and Race in American History,” in Kousser, J. Morgan and James M. McPherson, eds., _Region, Race, and Reconstruction: Essays in Honor of C. Vann Woodward_, Oxford, 1982: 143-177. 2. Holloway, Joseph, E “Africanisms in American Culture_.
14, pg. 6. Gaines, Patrice. “Bones of Forebears; Howard U. Study Stirs Ghanaian Chiefs to Honor Ages-Old Link to U.S. Blacks.” The Washington Post 3 Aug. 1995: B01.
"Wright Richard." Encyclopaedia of African-American Culture and History. 1996 ed. Hill, Robert A. "Garvey, Marcus Mosiah."