Leptin And Adiponectin

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I. Adipose tissue plays an important role in the maintenance of weight through the release of adipokine hormones. These hormones include leptin and adiponectin. a. Leptin is a satiety hormone produced by the obesity gene in adipose tissue that controls appetite and energy expenditure (Feng et al, 2013). i. Leptin maintains energy levels and helps to prevent obesity. ii. It affects the hypothalamus through negative feedback, to control appetite and energy expenditure, with elevated blood levels in obese individuals. 1. This increase may be due to the inability of leptin to stimulate fatty acid oxidation. 2. One study found that in comparison to lean subjects, obese individuals had higher levels of fatty acid uptake, with lower stimulation of fatty acid oxidation, which may be the cause of triglyceride accumulation that is evident in obese individuals. iii. The cause of leptin deficiency is caused by the abnormal distribution and deposition of adipose tissue in obese individuals. b. Adiponectin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity as well (Ricci and Bevilacqua, 2012). i. Adiponectin is linked with metabolic and inflammatory processes (Guegnon et al, 2007). ii. The presence of adiponectin has been linked to insulin resistance, which affects the metabolic processes of the body, and it also has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties (Guegnon et al, 2007). iii. Low levels of adiponectin are associated with cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and overall it leads to metabolic syndromes (Ricci and Bevilacqua, 2012; Christou and Kiortsis, 2013). iv. Several studies have found that obese individuals have these decreased levels of adiponectin plasma levels, inhibited by secretions from the... ... middle of paper ... ...s a natural adaptation to starvation conditions to hopefully curb the breakdown of muscle proteins. This is caused in part by a decrease in leptin concentration as well. XII. Program Design Recommendations for Diet a. XIII. Program Design Recommendations for Endurance Training a. XIV. Program Design Recommendations for Resistance Training a. b. Exercise protocols that increase GH release in RT were shown to be most effective in 10 RM with short rest periods less than 1 minute and high total work. (Thomas et al, 2013). XV. Summary a. In order to decrease obesity, an exercise program and overall lifestyle change is needed (Goral, 2008). b. The type of exercise program that is ideal for the subject depends upon whether aerobic or resistance training is being used. i. c. This can be achieved with or without hormone supplementation. i. With hormone supplementation,
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