Thus, these reinforcements are inconsistent, which launches the process of differentiation between different social situations. Terminal behavior is the main goal of learning, which shows the final point of educational activities. This presupposes, that student might choose his or her own ways and components to perform the terminal behavior. Contingency contrast is a connection between performed behavior and the consequences, which precedes learning. As a result, the student has an understanding of how he or she should structure the behavior to gain more positive reinforcements.
Learning is a change in an individual’s mind by the process of cognitive, emotional and environmental influences. Each of these processes has a different definition of how learning is acquired. Theorists from a cognitive perspective describe learning as a change in the internal mental activity, however, these activities cannot be observed directly. In contrast, behavioural learning theorists propose that behaviour is learned through environmental experiences by obtaining and modifying old and new information. (Feldman & Landry, 2012) Through learning from an environmental standpoint, an individual may lead to a potential or permanent behavioural change by altering how the interpretation of the stimuli may be.
Learning theories Learning theories help in describing how the information is being immersed, managed, and recollected during the process of learning. Factors such as intellectual, sentimental, past experiences and environmental issues play an important part in the learning process and to acquire knowledge. Behavioral theories Behaviorism, as a learning theory, is based on a change in knowledge through controlled stimulus/response conditioning. This type of learner is dependent upon an instructor for acquisition of knowledge. The instructor must demonstrate factual knowledge, then observe, measure, and modify behavioral changes in specified direction.
Being human is understanding how we learn about the world and utilizing that information to make meaning of our lives. In order to do that, we must understand the meaning of our experiences. According to Jack Mezirow, “Transformative Learning” is……It is the ability to take an experience, make sense of it, interpret it, and then use that interpretation to find a solution. “To make ‘meaning’ means to make sense of an experience, we make an interpretation of it. When we subsequently use this interpretation to guide decision-making or action, then making ‘meaning’ becomes ‘learning’” (Mezirow, 1998, p. 1).
Culture plays a significant role in shaping people’s behaviors. Humans start to expose to culture the day they are born and they learn cultural values through their everyday life interacting with the people and environments around them. The cultural values often help us in guiding our behaviors and provide us a context in helping us identify the proper way of responding to various situations. Culture can help to determine human behaviors because culture can influence individuals’ psychological processes, development of self, and motivation. However, individual differences should also be examined in determining people’s behaviors.
People do not imitate all that they observe they stop and think about the costs and benefits. Certain behaviours are learned through classical and operant conditioning. In this essay the writer will discuss certain behaviours that are explained by the social learning theory and behaviours that are not explained by this theory. Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of training or experience. Bandura (1977) suggests that “learning is a largely social process involving modeling of behaviours”.
Although it seems as if sometimes it’s a natural thing to act a specific way, the environment we find ourselves in is what ultimately shapes and constraints us to act in a certain matter (“What is Personality,” 2009). The behaviorist perspective on personality seeks to develop explanations of behavior; behaviorist believe that personality develops as people interact with others in their environments. Thus, personality development is a complex process but there are many potential environmental influences that help to shape it (Moore, 2013). Behaviorism is a theory of personality that sees everything in terms of conditioning. The theory was founded by John B. Watson who believed that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our behavior.
Theories of human development deliver a framework to deliberate human growth, development, and learning. Understanding the theories can deliver useful contents into individuals and society a set of principles and concepts that describe life span development. Development perspectives are the psychoanalytic theory, behavior theory, humanistic approach and cognitive theory. Each theory focuses on different aspects of human development. The psychoanalytic is “the approach stating that behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that are usually unconsciousness” ().Following, the behavior perspective emphasizing on the observable behaviors and “outside stimuli from the environment”.
The intention of this paper is to discover personal learning style so as to apply it to particular study and practical methods of test-taking. The learning style will be employed to mark study of elaborate and systematic plan of action, manage the surroundings to develop learning, realize elevated results on act of examining something closely, and develop skills of communication. However, different people have different ways in how they analysis the world, how they acquire acts from which conclusions may be drawn and finally how they carry through based on their representation of what is perceived. These qualities of being unlike or dissimilar are innate gifts of the mind. Psychological type is a term defining where people tend to form a pattern to focus their attention (Jung, 1923).
The schema must be changed to accommodate this conflict. Activities are relevant to the learner and real world based. The weaknesses of constructivism are that experiences and attitudes vary with the learner. Constructivism is utilized when the learner takes control over their learning. Students have an understanding fo the importance of the problem, comprehend the relevance, and construct knowledge through their experiences.