Incorporating Nonlinguistic Cues into ELL Instruction Communicating what we want to say, how we want to say it is the goal of expressing ourselves linguistically. For English Language Learners (and their teachers), the ability to do that successfully in their new language presents a challenge. In the content areas of instruction, it is especially important to draw out the information that a student already knows in their native language – even when they do not have the linguistic ability to express themselves in English – in order to assess their level of understanding and engage prior knowledge. Using non-linguistic representations provides a way of bridging that gap between actual understanding and the ability to express that understanding for English Language Learners. For teachers, non-linguistic cues or representations are an effective alternative method in the process of delivering language and content instruction.
After talking each other about the given topics, the teacher made them write at least two sentences using passive form and comparison as much as possible to give them a chance to consolidate their knowledge gained from the first stage of activities, talking each other about the given topics. In this way, students moved from semantic processing in which the students read the text three times to comprehend as well as to get familiar with the structures mainly used in the text to syntactic processing by speaking and writing. These two big theories, Input and Output, seems to be very different but the result of them for learners are pretty much the same to make leaners internalize or develop their competence. Considering these theories pretty well as teachers, making learners acquire a second language will be a lot more effective.
A deductive approach focuses on the rule that is to be taught and then how to apply it. In this approach the teacher is at the centre of the class. An inductive approach focuses more on teaching the rules in a real language context, to understand the structures of a language rather than naming them. There is debate amongst educators whether or not grammar should be taught inductively or deductively. Brown (2007) however, states that an inductive approach is more appropriate due to that it is “more in keeping with natural language acquisition” and “it allows students to get a communicative 'feel' fo... ... middle of paper ... ... instead.
“It is no longer a question of whether to take advantage of authentic material in foreign language instruction, but of how to harness them and guide our students in their use” -Paulsen, 2001-. The implementation of authentic material is causing an effect in different aspect of education, and changing the way how we teach and learn. Motivating EFL students to develop in the target language is a very complex process. Teachers and researchers have accepted motivation as one of the most important factors that influences a person to initiate learning a foreign language (L2). Wlodwoski (1999) defines motivation as “the process that can (a) arouse and instigate behavior, (b) give direction or purpose to behavior, (c) continue to allow behavior to persist, and (d) lead to choosing or preferring a particular behavior”.
According to Hallidays approach combining both practical speaking and communication as well as attend theory classes very important towards improving the learners understanding of the language syntax thus allowing them to begin practicing to rearrange working to fit the native way of speaking a 2nd language. Failure to do this would result in seriously impairing the meaning of the language resulting in serious complication communicating with the public which may also feel offended when communication is
Getting Over L1 Word Order Interference by Means of Peer Monitoring Introduction The following document is not just an exercise but a whole process of analysis of the needs of my students as learners and myself as teacher. Here you will find a simple but common and repetitive error found in the writing process of language learning, which is the inverted order of noun and adjective in English from the Spanish standard rule. As being so common, there are different theories and approaches which try to explain it and a similar amount of researches who tried to solve this problem. From this perspective, I decided to select the Monitor Theory; which, in comparison to some other theories studied during the course, offered more detailed explanation from different human, learning, teaching and thought points of view, preceded by a brief and solid learner profile. In addition, the selected approach; particularly from Krashen studies, provide evidence of effectiveness in a variety of morphologic and syntactic issues typically found in the process of learning a language, instead of acquiring it, after certain age with formal instruction.
It is understood that language cannot be instructed in the Second Language classroom. It has to be reviewed to make them effective and learner friendly. In an environment where Second Language learning scenario has undergone a paradigm shift, the learner’s idea is to be changed and greater attention is to be given to the learning process. For this, the cultural domain of the l... ... middle of paper ... ...Yet exploratory research on learner’s strategy use needs to apply more carefully defined, reliable categories before it can point to targets for more controlled based classroom research in teaching English as a SL.
For many students, academic writing is a foreign language. Presenting the materials in new and interesting ways, like one would do in an ESL classroom, is crucial. Modern students expect classes to be engaging and practical. Classes should give students an understanding of why the subject matter is important, as well as how to use the information. Modern American culture has trained students to question the importance of everything, and, just like language teachers explaining why it is important to differentiate between ‘bored’ and ‘boring,’ mainstream teachers need to break down the concepts in a way that shows the effects on the students personally, how communication can drastically affect the way a person
Regarding the immense significance of speaking to the learners, teachers have tried to employ unusual techniques and teaching procedures to assist learners master this skill, one of which is task-based language teaching (TBLT). Various investigators stress the significance of task-based approaches over communicative instruction in which teachers and learners feel freer to discover their own practices to exploit communicative effectiveness (Gass& Crookes, 1993; cited in Skehan, 1996). Task-based L2 performance is an attractive subject in itself and requires more experiential examination, but as tasks are extensively employed in language teaching methods and also language examination, knowing more about their efficacy could have convenient worth (Tavakoli& Foster, 2008). 2.4.3. Importance of Learning Oral Skills as Practical Issues in FL/ SL Today, English is used by millions of peopleforseveral communicative functions across the countries.
The behaviorist theory has many ideas that I will use in my class, because I believe that children with disabilities do better when the material is modeled, when they are prompted from least to greatest, and when they are reinforced. It is also crucial to understand the thinking behind their behaviors and the meaningful use, which is where the cognitive theory comes in. It is important that reading is developed through meaningful use (Alexander & Fox, 2008). If I cannot meaningfully apply the process of reading to my students’ lives then most likely they will not be motivated to participate in my teaching. It will be harder for them to learn how to read if they are not motivated and cannot meaningfully relate to it.