Principles of learning identify specific factors that consistently influence learning and describe the particular effects that these factors have. Studies have shown given the same piece of information, individuals interpret it differently and learn it at different rates through different methods. Thus, the challenge of effective instruction is not only delivering the desired instruction, but in a way that learners of various background, skills, and experiences can take that learning into their personal world of knowledge and make it their own. By addressing the fundamental concern of instructional design and incorporating learning theories to support the process of learning, Robert Gagné's instructional design theory has emerged as a primary model used for effective instructional design. This paper will outline Gagné's instructional design theory and provide information on how it is applied to instructional technology.
Constructivism: A re-equilibration and clarification of the concepts, and some potential implications for teaching and pedagoy. Radical Pedagogy. Shermis, M. L. (1999). Learing Theories for Teachers. New York, etc.
To be made in the image of God speaks more toward our spirit and nature as human beings. We are created in the image of God, because we are to carry out the plans and dreams that God has given to each of us as individuals. Since we are made in the image of God, we possess attributes that reflect God and his character. We can develop a better idea of who God is by looking at the human person and analyzing common characteristics to humans. These characteristics, however warped they may be, probably reveal something about God’s nature.
According to the authors (Entwistle & Ramsden, 1983), differences between approaches to learning concern the differences that what learners are focusing on, what they are trying to achieve and how they are going about it. In the deep approach, students intend to extract meaning and, thus, engage in an active process of learning that involves relating ideas and searching for patterns and principles (Entwistle, 2000). Furthermore, the deep approach is argued to promote understanding and long-term retention of ideas that could result in long-term and meaningful outcomes of higher education (Gibbs, Margon & Taylor, 1982; Marton et al., 1997; Marton et. al., 1993; Purdie & Hattie, 2002). On the other hand, in the surface approach, the students
A definition of instructional design theory is a theory that offers guidance and direction in the field of education to better help people learn and develop (Reigeluth, 1983, p. 5). The kinds of learning and development may vary and include cognitive, emotional, spiritual, physical, and social foundations. The learner may receive this knowledge in any number of methods including face-to-face teacher-lead learning, facilitated online student-focused learning, and any number of hybrid or mixed formats. Key factors for the instructional designer creating learning content and delivery are the learning goals and objectives, the learner traits and characteristics, and the delivery methodology dictated by technology, learners, and content (Willis, & Lockee, 2004). When distance learning is a consideration for the designer, the instructional delivery method and availability of technology and communication systems become a critical factor.
Revelation is the process by which God makes himself known to us. Being that humans are finite and God is infinite, God must take the step to make himself known if humans are to truly understand God in all His majesty (Vandenburg, 2010). There are two ways God makes himself known to us, general revelation and special revelation. Theologians have generally thought, through our contact with nature, we are given the ability to know and interact with God. Nature, as created by God, is an element of general revelation.
Learning theories Learning theories help in describing how the information is being immersed, managed, and recollected during the process of learning. Factors such as intellectual, sentimental, past experiences and environmental issues play an important part in the learning process and to acquire knowledge. Behavioral theories Behaviorism, as a learning theory, is based on a change in knowledge through controlled stimulus/response conditioning. This type of learner is dependent upon an instructor for acquisition of knowledge. The instructor must demonstrate factual knowledge, then observe, measure, and modify behavioral changes in specified direction.
Constructivism Missing works cited Definitions and Comparisons of Constructivism Constructivism is a defined, when referring to the learner, as a "receptive act that involves construction of new meaning by learners within the context of their current knowledge, previous experience, and social environment" (Bloom; Perlmutter & Burrell, 1999). Also, real life experiences and previous knowledge are the stepping stones to a constructivism, learning atmosphere. (Spigner-Littles & Anderson, 1999). Constructivism involves the learner being responsible for learning the material and, not necessarily, the teacher (Ely; Foley; Freeman & Scheel, 1995). When learning occurs, the goals, values, and beliefs of the individuals need to be linked to the new data.
The work of the teacher is to find ways or approaches that will motivate learners to construct their knowledge based on prior knowledge, experience and their view of the real world. This theory rests on the assumption that knowledge is constructed by learners as they attempt to make sense of their own experiences (Driscoll, 1994). The theory suggests that pupils, not the teacher, are the center and controller of learning. Instead of acquiring knowledge from the teacher, the pupil has multiple sources of information in the process of constructing knowledge (teacher, students, library, Internet, textbooks, etc.). From the perspective of constructivist theory, the use of technology in learning becomes more essential to fulfilling the demands of a constructivist approach.
Teaching theories are as much part of the classroom as the student and the teacher. The effect individual theories have on an environment depends how they are incorporated within the classroom in addition to the influence they have had on the curriculum construction. This essay will briefly look at how motivation theory, cognitive and social cognitive theory along with constructivism have impacted on education and the classroom. “Motivation is the process whereby goal-orientated activity is instigated and sustained” (Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2008. As cited in Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, p.284).