A. Behaviorism, constructivism and cognitivism are relatively common theories used in the classroom as ways to approach student learning. Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior, such as students answering questions correctly, or being able to follow directions to complete a task as instructed. Characteristics of a classroom that uses behaviorism might be memorization of facts, writing vocabulary words, or a token reward system to inspire the desired behavior and decrease undesired behaviors. Constructivism, as indicated by the root word “construct,” focuses on the construction of new ideas, or expanding on what is already known. Students in a classroom using constructivism as a means for learning might seem more actively engaged in the learning process; they often learn something new through applying what they already know about the content area, and exploring new matter to further their understanding.
Relevant (QSA, ACARA,) documents highlight the importance of educational systems lifelong learning this is where students grow not only in knowledge but to become independent of the teacher. Therefore teacher supplied-feedback should give way to self assessment and self monitoring. Some of what the teacher brings to the assessment act itself must become a part of the curriculum for the student. Sadler The validity of student relative teacher judgements in assessment has been explored by many researchers and reported in the education literature .In large part student peer and self grading works best when students share a comprehensive understanding of the assessment criteria and the characteristics of work illustrative of different levels of performance. Boud describes the characteristics of self assessment as the involvement of students in identifying standards and or making criteria and making judgments about the extent to which they met these criteria and standards.
Encarta (2009) defines learning as the acquisition of knowledge or skills. It is involves in acquiring new competences. In order to achieve good teaching and learning developmental process, both teachers and students play vital role throughout the lesson. One of the major concerns in ensuring successful classroom is the suitable approach or appropriate methodologies used in class by teachers. As we all know, learners have their own learning style.
They like to learn in an interactive way, where they can visualise materials during the lesson, and enjoy a kinaesthetic approach to learning. Inclusive learning addresses different aspects in teaching which are helpful in ESOL learning and teaching environment. They are described as attitudes, approaches and techniques to evaluate student’s performance and promote effective learning environment. To achieve aims and objectives of the learning process, initial and formative assessments are conducted through group work. Quizzes, questionnaires, worksheets and handouts are given to students to practice them in the class according to the topics.
Teaching and Learning Strategies: Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: There are two main motivational influences intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation can encourage children to attain new knowledge and skills and engage in productive behaviours (McDevitt and Ormrod, 2010, p. 482). The goal of an effective teacher would be to have all students motivated intrinsically so students don’t develop a reliance on extrinsic factors to be motivated. Most students rely on extrinsic motivation to begin with. It is up to the teacher to work to develop, encourage and maintain intrinsic motivation in ... ... middle of paper ... ...Annick, M., Brennen, MA.
The way a person best retains information is considered to be their preferred learning style (Irvine & York 1995). Knowing what learning style best fits with a student inside your classroom is important. Being conscious of how a student best learns will help the teacher plan how to provide the student with the knowledge that is needed to be learned in ways that best suits each student. Knowing students’ learning styles can help in many ways to enhance both learning and teaching. Plenty of research has been done about how people learn and how the information is relayed to them.
Reece and Walker (2002) describe a teaching strategy as a combination of student activities supported by the use of appropriate resources to provide particular learning resources. It is that procedure by which new knowledge is fixed in the minds of students permanently. For this purpose, a teacher does extra activities in the class. These activities help the teacher to take shift from one strategy to another. A method of teaching on the other hand is directly related to the presentation of the lesson.
Instructional Style and Techniques Developing an instructional style in the classroom is important because it gives the student an idea of how they will be in taking information. As a teacher, my instructional style will be more of a student-centered approach to learning. I will still have the authority figure, but will allow the students to play an active role in the learning process. My role is to coach and facilitate student learning, along with the overall comprehension of the material. The student’s learning will be measure by both informal and formal forms of assessment, which includes tests, group projects, journals, and class participation.
After examining my use of effective classroom practices through the self-evaluation of current teaching practice worksheet, I identified several areas of teaching that I could improve in. The area that I chose to focus on was “students are carefully orientated to lessons.” Within that broad area I focused on the question if I communicated the objectives of the lesson to all students and checked to see if the students understood the objective. I posed the research question: What will the effect of clearly communicated objectives and expected learning outcomes be on the student mastery of the lesson objective?” By posing this question I expected the students to learn the objective and show mastery of the lesson objective. To help with my action research plan I read several articles about both objectives and lesson plans. The articles discussed the importance of lesson plans and lesson objectives and how to develop effective lesson plans that include objectives.
2.1 School-Based Assessment As what Jamil (2005) explicated, to attain information about students’ learning, we can use measurement, evaluation or assessment. Teachers play an important role in sensing the development, abilities, progress and attainment of students. Not only that, teachers also decide which learning outcomes to be assessed, planned and build instrument, perform an assessment, record his assessment, analyse assessment information, report the finding and conduct the necessary follow-up actions. Heritage, Kim, Vendlinski & Herman (2009) described assessment as a systematic process to incessantly gather evidence and provide feedback about learning (p. 24). Assessment is one of the ways teacher can monitor students’ learning also provides data to teachers that can be used to encourage students to be self-reflective about their learning development (Black, 2003).